Nonverbal Communication Exam #3 Iba TCU

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Matt Herensteintouch
-The Conversation: The Power of Touch
-Studied touch inn rats, humans, primates (the way they develop)
Haptics
Study of touch among people
Touch
-First of 5 senses to develop
-The most developed sense at birth
-Probably the last to leave us when we die
-Most powerful but most misunderstood of all the codes of nonverbal communication
-Most volatile of nonverbal communication
Dancer Keltner
"the greater good" - can tell a persons emotion through touch (institute at Berkley)
Touch Therapies
-Children first learn how to classify objects and people as soft, warm, fuzzy, etc based on tactile experience
-By 6 months, girls are already influenced to spend more time touching with parents as opposed to boys
-Touch is increasingly views as inappropriate as children age (particularly between males)
Sensitive Body Parts
-Lips
-Fingertips
Skin
-If unfolded, would be the size of a twin mattress
-the largest and oldest "sense" organ we have
-Fully developed within the womb
-First we get, last we lose
Fields
-Gave birth to a premature baby and noticed how much of a factor touch has in the healing process of:
-Premature babies
-Burn victims
-Drug addicted babies
Touch
-Provides a feeling of reward
-Reinforces resiprosity
-Signals safety
-Soothes
-Promotes cooperation
Touch in Early Life
Crucial to normal development of:
-Cognition
-Emotion
-Responsibility for touch ethic
Those who express affection
Show quicker physiological recovery from
-Stress
-Have better metabolic and cardiovascular health
Sidney Jourard
-Studied gender and touch
-US is a "touch-starved" country
-Americans go out of our way not tobump into people
-Americans become embarrassed when accidentally touching someone
Long Term Intimate Relationships
-Touch less often and intimately than others
-Ironic
Massage Therapy
Improves:
-Brain activity
-Attention
-Pain relief
Vagal nerve
-Stimulate by pressure in massages
-Lowers physiological arousal and stress hormones
Touch Avoiders
-Stand farther away
-Touch partners less in public
-Report lower self-esteemless
-More anxiety
-More suspicion
-More withdraw
-More neurotic
-More dogmatic/authoritarian
-Less satisfied w/own body
-Tend to be male
-Tend to be in public places
Hall and Veccia
Sat in mall and observed 15% of 4500
Jourard
-Females are more accessible to touch
-Most touching occurs by opposite sex friends and mothers
-Fathers usually touch on the hands
Touch Deprivation
Linked to:
-Alienation
-Depression
-Violence
Tiffany Field
-Adolescents with less physical affection tend to be more aggressive and violent
-Therapy used for suicidal thoughts and depression creating disorders
Henley - Touch is Likely
-Giving info or advice
-Giving an order
-Asking for a favor
-Trying to persuade someone
-Deep conversation
-Outside of work
-When communicating excitement
-When receiving messages of worry
Desmond Morris
-Zoologist
-Wrote "man watching"
-Said there are 457 types and 14 categories
Touch Related to
-Power
-Intimacy
-Emotion
Hanslin: Motivation why we touch
-Functional/professional
-Doctor/hairstylist; athletic trainer
-Social/polite
-Greetings/depart; handshakes hug, or kiss
-Friendship/warmth
-Cheek kisses, pat, or hug
-Love/intimacy
-Hugs/kisses of greater duration or intensity
-Sexual arousal
-Extremely intimate
Facial Primacy
-Tendency to rely more on the face for communication than on other communication channels
-Could be static or dynamic evaluations
-Basic genetics/facial features
-Or facial expressions
-Research shows people believe those facial expressive are more confident and likable
Biological Perspective
-Facial expressions are a readout
-An honest, unpremeditated, uncontrolled expression
-Others claim emotion and expression are loosely coupled
Formation of Facial Expressions
Darwinian Theory -Evolutional and natural selection
-Are actually not expressions at all
-Rather were relaxes of nervous system wiring
Facial Expressions are Learned
-Acquired through cultural/social/family experiences
-We can learn how to act in certain situations
-Children are taught what is appropriate and inappropriate nonverbal behavior
Facial Expressions: a Combined Perspective
-Both innate and learned
-Some expressions we are born with while others are learned from different environments and situations
Smiles
Genuine Smile/Duchenee Smile (felt smile)
-Unconscious and controlled
-Fakesmile (unfelt smile)
Ekman and Freisen
Facial management techniques are categories of behavior which help us determine appropriate facial response in a given situation
Neutralization
-First facial management technique
-Use facial expression to erase/numb how we feel
Masking
-Concealing a felt emotion
-Replacing it with one or more appropriate in context
Intensification
An expression which is a exaggeration of how we feel about something
Deintensifiation
Reduction of intensity due to social or cultural expectations
Ekman and Freisen: 8 Styles of Display
many are subconscious to the communicator

-Withholder
-Revealer
-Unwittingly Expresser
-Blanked Expresser
-Substitute Expresser
-Frozen affect Expresser
-Ever Ready Expresser
-Flooded Affect Expresser
Withholder
-Pokerface
-Movement is restricted
Revealer
Opposite of withholder
Unwittingly Expresser
Unwittingly reveals emotion
Blanked Expresser
No one else can see the emotion expressed
Substitute Expresser
Displaying an emotion other than what the communicator thinks is being protrayed
Frozen affect Expresser
Rather permanent facial features
Ever Ready Expresser
One genreal facial expression is used
Flooded Affect Expresser
Rarely look neutral
Using the Face
Muscles in our face enable us to make 7,000 - 10,000 distinct expressions
FACS - Ekman and Freisen
Facial Auction Coding System
Separates face into 3 regions
-Eyebrows and forehead
-Eyes and Eyelids
-Lower Face
Micro Expressions
-Last 1/25th of a second
-Signs of emotions just emerging
-Emotions expressed before the person displaying them knows what he or she is feeling or emotions the person is trying to conceal
Women, Face, and Problems
-Women who show less expression on their face when talking about an angry expression had more arthritis
-Women who showed sad expressions had more skin problems
Argyle and Ingham
-Average length of gaze - 2.95 seconds
-Average length of mutual gaze - 1.18 seconds
-We gaze over 50% on average
-Speakers gaze less than listeners
4 Functions of Gazing
-Regulating
-Monitoring Feedback
-Reflecting Cognitive Ability
-Expressing Emotions
Regulating
-Bringing people into communication
-Signaling that you are open for conversation
-Greet people but avoid gaze immediately afterward
-Allows someone to keep their turn by back channeling
-Signals turn taking
Monitoring Feedback
-Suggest interest and attention
-Connects us emotionally to others
-Shares gazes induce meaning into actions
-Helps maintain group harmony
-We look at injured party to see hot they react before we react
-Females do this more and more effectively than males
Reflecting Cognitive Ability
-Speakers and listeners tend to avoid gazing when processing difficult/complex information
-Avoid gaze on more reflecting question than factual
-Difficult factual information
-Information reusing some me more retrieval
Expressing Emotions
-Can be difficult to determine without eyebrows
-surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, sadness
Approach Orientation
Observers are more likely to perceive approach orietnation emotions as:
-Anger
-Joy
Avoidance Orientation
Observers are more likely to perceive avoidance orietnation emotions with averted gaze as:
-Fear
-Sadness
Status to Dominance Indicator
Those with higher status gaze more when speaking and less when listening
-Also, observers attribute higher status to those who gaze more
Gazing
-Gaze at what we find rewarding
-Longer gazes than normal can indicate desire for intimacy
Intimacy Equilibrium Model
-Argyle and Dean
-Intimacy is the result of:
-Amount of eye gazing
-Close proximity
-Intimacy of topic
-Amount of smiling

-Balance the equilibrium - that is, as one of the above changes, it will change in the opposite direction
Compensation and Reciprocation Model
-Cross cultural research - as physical contact between mothers and infant increases, eye contact decreases
-Same is true of chimpanzee interactions
-10 seconds or more = hostility
Socially Dominant
-Gaze more
-Showing interest in others
More Gaze
-Intelligence
-Extraversion
-Agreeableness
-Openness
Less Gaze
-Embarrassment
-Humiliation
-Shame
-Guilt
Conditions Influencing Gaze
-Culture
-Distance
-Personality and Characteristics
Distance
We tend to increase eye contact as distance increase
-10 feet men
-6 feet women
Personality and Characteristics
-Gaze tells us mood, intent, disposition
-More eye contact - more positive attributes
-15% - cold, pessimistic, defensive, evasive, submissive
-80% - friendly, self confident, natural, mature, sincere
-Less the person gazed, the more state and trait anxiety were attributed
Gaze Cuing
Tendency to look in the direction of someone else's gaze
Women outperform men on gaze measures of:
-Frequency
-Duration
-Reciprocity
Pupil Dilatation
Indicates sexual arousal
Hess Studies
-Dilation occurs for positive attitudes
-"bidirectional indicators of attitude"
-Other found some elation on positive feedback, but not constriction with negative feedback
-True of arousal, attentiveness, interest, perceptual orientation
-Experience since the middles ages indicates that pul dilation is deemed as an attraction device
Vocalics
-How people express themselves through their voice
-What the human voice can produce and manipulate such as tone and attitude
Vocal Properties
Aspects of the voice that can be controlled and manipulated
Pitch
-Intonation
-Vocal variety
-Inflection
Rate
The speed at which people speak
Volume
The softness or loudness of the voice
Articulation/Pronunciation
How distinctively people speak
Vocalizations
-2/3 of spoken language comes in chunks of less than 6 seconds
-Pauses, hesitations, and silences are used quite frequently
Pauses
-Filled
-Silent
-Audible
Lower Voice
More attractive and sophisticated, sexy and masculine in both sexes
Assertiveness
-Associated with one's volume
-Louder are perceived more dominant
Men
-Perceived more masculine
-Poorer enunciation
-less expressive
-lower pitched
-slower
-Louder
Judging Dialects
Three Dimensions:
-Sociointellectual status
-Aesthetic quality
-Dynamism
Pear
Age, sex, sometimes vocation, social class, can be judged by voice
Mothereese
Hugh pitched, sing song, slow, rhythmic, repetitive, simple
-more freely expressed emotion
Baby Talk
Occurs when talking with:
-Children
-Adults with developmental disabilities
-Nonnative adult speakers of english
-Called secondary baby talk
Mehrabian and Williams - Those more persuasive have
-Fluent, non hesitant speech
-Shorter response latency
-Pitch variation
-Louder voice - men more likely to be louder
-Faster rate
Turn Yielding
Pitch goes up (?) pitch goes down (.)
Turn Requesting
-Open mouth, vocal buffers (ah,er)
-Assist speaker to end turn more quickly (nod)
Turn Maintaining
-Increase volume
-Filled Pauses
Turn Denying
-Back channeling
-okay to keep your turn
Linked to Deception
-Unusually high pitched voices
-Length of time
-Length of messages
-Speech errors