62 terms

Chapter 21 APES

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Water pollution
the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on the water
Point source pollution
Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types).
Non point source pollution
water pollution that does not have a specific point of origin
Pathogen
An organism that causes disease
Fecal coliform bacteria
a group of microorganisms in the human intestines that can serve as an indicator species for potentially harmful microorganisms associated with contamination by sewage
Sewage
The water and human wastes that are washed down sinks, toilets, and showers
Industrial waste
Material that is left over from the manufacturing process that is recycled outside of the primary manufacturing facility
Ganges river
A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal.
Water treatment plan
A Facility That Cleans The Water In Order To Make It Safe For Humans To Drink.

Ganges is being improved by this.
Eutrophication
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
Cultural eutrophication
Overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
Biological pollution
Occurs when live or dead organisms are added to water supplies
Degradable wastes
potentially polluting substance that can be broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
Non degradable waste
Such as toxic lead and arsenic- remain in the water permanently.
Groundwater pollution
Can come from arsenic from apples. It's hard to locate the source, and predict the direction of the flow, and it's nearly impossible to remove/flush due to the low groundwater flow rates. Contaminated soils continuously contaminate the freshwater making it the worst problem in water pollution
Reduce
diminish; bring to a weaker or more difficult condition; demote; lower in rank; separate into components by analysis; Ex. reduced to the ranks; Ex. reduce the house to rubble; N. reduction
Nitrate ions
vigorous plant growth and proteins
Blue baby syndrome
The illness that occurs when we have too much nitrates in our water, especially in children.
Arsenic
Name the most common type or cause. • Acute metal poisoning in the United States
Sewage Sludge
gooey, mudlike, mixture of toxic chemicals, infectious agents, settled solids removed from waste water at sewage treatment plants
Municipal sewage
in developed countries, sewers carry wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, and toilets to a municipal treatment plant, where most of the pollutants are removed
Effluent
A stream or overflow from a larger body of water, or from a channel or sewer
-A liquid, solid, or gaseous discharge from the ostomy. Usually composed of fecal material.
Harmful Algal Blooms
HABs
-Eutrophication in coastal water can cause an increase
Oxygen depletion
Concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water column decreases to a level where it can no longer sustain life
Hypoxia
Low oxygen saturation of the body, not enough oxygen in the blood
Estuary
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
Integrated coastal managment
citizens' groups, communities, state legislatures, and the federal government are working together to reduce pollution inputs into the bay.
Crude petroleum
The most heavily traded good in the world is
Exxon Valdez
Oil tanker that crashed in March 1989, considered largest U. S. oil spill, emptied 35,000 tons of oil into Prince William Sound
1987 water quality act
Established national policy to control nonpoint sources of water pollution; important in development of state management plants to control nonpoint water pollution sources
Clean water act of 1977
the act that created water quality standards to control pollution including elimination of point source discharge of pollutants
Discharge trading policy
program that uses market forces to reduce water pollution in the US; water pollution source is allowed to pollute at high levels higher than allowed in its permit if it buys credits from permit holders with pollution lvels below what they are allowed
Septic tank
a tank, typically underground, in which sewage is collected and allowed to decompose through bacterial activity before draining by means of a leaching field
Septic system
A small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes. The septic tank contains bacteria which decompose the waste, making the water cleaner before it is released underground
Disposal field
a system of trenches with gravel and loose pipes through which septic-tank effluent may seep into the surrounding soil. Also called Drainage Field or Absorption Field.
Leach field
The ground area around a septic tank through which waste waters filters after leaving the tank.
Settling tank
A storage space where solids settle and are removed as sludge during WWTP
Raw sewage
All the liquid and solid wastes that are flushed down toilets and poured down drains
Primary sewage treatment
first step of sewage treatment; eliminates most particulate material from raw sewage using grates, screens, and gravity (settling).
Grit
(n.) very fine sand or gravel; courage in the face of hardship or danger; (v.) to grind; to make a grating sound
Secondary sewage treatment
a biological process in which aerobic bacteria remove as much as 90% of dissolved and biodegradable, oxygen-demanding organic wastes
Tertiary sewage treatment
specialized chemical and physical processes that reduce the amount of specific pollutants left in wastewater after primary and secondary treatments; usually inexpensive
Chlorination
Which form of water disinfection continues to provide antibacterial protection after the water leaves the purification plant?
Storm water runoff
water that originates during precipitation events. It may also be used to apply to water that originates with snowmelt that enters the storm water system.
Biosolids
A primarily organic solid product produced by wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially recycled. The word biosolids is replacing the word sludge when referring to treated waste.
Composting toilet systems
The process that turns human waste into Fertilizer.
Bioreactor
A tank containing bacteria in appropriate conditions for bioremediation to occur
Livestock waste
How might intensive agriculture contribute to water pollution ?
Manure lagoons
human-made ponds lined with rubber built to handle large quantities of manure produced by livestock
Cancer
A disease in which some body cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
Maximum contaminant levels
the amount of a pollutant that is the upper range of what is considered medically safe to consume.
Potable water
Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
U.S. safe drinking water act of 1974
sets maximum contaminant levels for any pollutants that affect human health
NRDC
National Resources Defense Council; a citizen group utilized by the EPA to pressure companies into lowering their emissions
political pressure
What is likely the reason why it took so long for the FDA to approve Plan B for over the counter use
Waste water
Is water that contains waste from your home or industry that must be treated before you can drink it
Oxygen demanding waste
Organic matter that enters a body of water and feeds the growth of microbes that are decomposers. Measured in terms of BOD
algae
Grow in soil, on trees and on the bodies of turtles and frogs; smallest of all green plants
Algal bloom
an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
PBDEs
Synthetic compounds that provide fire-retardent properties and are used in a diverse array of consumer products, including computers, televisions, plastics, and furniture. Released during production, disposal, and use of products. Endocrine disruptor
Thermal pollution
a temperature increase in a body of water that is caused by human activity and that has a harmful effect on water quality and on the ability of that body of water to support life
Thermal shock
When a source of thermal pollution first starts of stops, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in water temperature