82 terms

National 5 Music Concepts

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A Capella
Unaccompanied choral singing.
AB
Two-part form - music in two sections. These sections may be repeated
Accidental
A sign added to a note to change the pitch
Alberti Bass
Broken chords played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody.
Arco
Instruction given to string players to use a bow
Aria
A solo song sung in an operatic style, in an opera, oratorio or cantata, with orchestral accompaniment
Atonal
The music has no feeling of key, major or minor. It is very dissonant and lacks a 'nice' melody and accompaniment.
Baritone
A male voice whose range lies between that of bass and tenor
Bassoon
This instrument belongs to the woodwind family. It is fairly low in pitch and features a double reed.
Binary
A form in which the music is made up of two different sections labelled A and B.
Bodhran
An Irish wooden drum, held in one hand and played with a wooden beater. It features in Scottish Music
Bongo Drums
Fairly high-pitched drums, joined in pairs and usually played with fingers and palms
Bothy Ballad
A folk song, usually with many verses, from north-east Scotland.
Cadence
The end of a musical phrase
Castanets
A percussion instrument popular in Spanish music
Celtic Rock
A style of music that mixes Celtic folk music and rock together
Chord Progressions
Different progressions using the chords built on the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th notes of a major or minor scale
Chorus
A group of singers, the music written for them or the refrain between verses of a song.
Chromatic
Notes which move by the interval of a semitone.
Clarsach
A small Scottish harp, used in folk music.
Classical
A term used to describe/refer to music composed during the period 1750-1810 approximately; the era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Cluster
A term used to describe a group of notes, which clash, played together
Coda
A passage at the end of a piece of music which rounds it off effectively
Col Legno
Instruction given to string players to turn the bow over and bounce the wood on the strings.
Compound Time Groupings
The beat is a dotted note which divides into three, eg 6/8 = two dotted crotchet beats in a bar and each beat can be divided into three quavers
Con Sordino
Muted
Contrapuntal
Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest; similar in meaning to polyphonic
Contrary Motion
Two parts which move in opposite directions, eg as one part ascends the other part descends.
Countermelody
A melody played against the main melody.
Cross Rhythm
Contrasting rhythms played at the same time or played with unusual emphasis on notes.
Descant
A counter melody which accompanies and is sung above the main melody
Dotted Crotchet
A note that last for 1½ beats
Dotted Quaver
A note that last for ¾ beats.
Flutter Tonguing
Rolling your 'r's' whilst playing a brass or woodwind instrument.
Fortissimo
This means very loud volume
French Horn
This instrument belongs to the brass family and is basically four metres of tubing curled around, with a bell-shaped opening on one end and a mouthpiece in the other.
Gaelic Psalms
Psalms (hymns) which were sung in Gaelic, unaccompanied.
Glissando
Sliding from one note to another, taking in all the notes in between where possible
Gospel
Music written with religious lyrics, often in praise or thanksgiving to God.
Grace Note
A type of ornament played as a quick, crushed note before the main note of a melody.
Ground Bass
A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied.
Hi Hat Cymbals
Used as part of a drumkit, they consist of two cymbals (one upside-down) that are hit with a stick or brush, and opened/closed with a foot pedal.
Homophonic
Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts play a similar rhythm at the same time.
Imperfect Cadence
A cadence where the last chord is chord V (the dominant) creating an unfinished effect.
Impressionism
A term borrowed from painting in which brief musical ideas merge and change to create a rather blurred, hazy and vague outline.
Indian Music
Music from India which uses instruments such as the sitar and tabla
Inverted Pedal
A note which is held on or repeated continuously at a high pitch
Melismatic
Several notes sung to one syllable
Mezzo Soprano
A female singer whose voice range lies between that of a soprano and an alto.
Minimalist
A development in the second half of the 20th century based on simple rhythmic and melodic figures which are constantly repeated with very slight changes each time.
Moderato
A medium tempo (speed).
Modulation
A change of key.
Oboe
This instrument belongs to the woodwind family. It uses a double reed which is placed between the lips and the air travels between the two reeds into the instrument. it is fairly high pitched.
Perfect Cadence
This cadence is the dominant to tonic chords (V-I). It sounds finished.
Pianissimo
An indication that the music should be played very softly
Pibroch
Music for solo bagpipe, in theme and variation form, and with grace notes
Piccolo
A half-size flute which plays an octave higher than the standard flute
Pitch Bend
Changing the pitch of a note, for example by pushing a guitar string upwards
Pizzicato
An instruction given to string players to pluck the strings instead of using the bow.
Polyphonic
Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance, which weave independently of each other.
Reverb
An electronic effect which can give the impression of different hall acoustics.
Ritardando
The music slows down
Roll
A very fast repetition of a note on a percussion instrument, eg on a snare drum or timpani
Rondo
A form where the first section (A) keeps returning, in between different sections - B, C etc.
Rubato
Translates as 'robbed time' which means the music will speed up and slow down in order to allow for expression, therefore there will not be a strict tempo maintained.
Semitone
Half a tone, eg G to Ab on a keyboard. From one fret to another on a guitar
Sforzando
A note played with a forced sudden accent
Sitar
A plucked, stringed instrument from India. It's basically an Indian guitar - easy to remember because it rhymes with guitar
Spanish Music
The folk music of Spain.
Strophic
A song which has music repeated for verses/choruses, therefore the same music will be heard repeating throughout the song.
Syllabic
Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only.
Symphony
A large work for orchestra, usually in four movements
Tabla
Indian drums often used to accompany the sitar.
Tierce de Picardie
When a piece of music which is in a minor key has a major chord as its last chord.
Tone
The distance between two notes, equivalent to two semitones (for example, two frets on a guitar
Trill
Moving quickly and repeatedly between two notes which are a step apart
Triplets
Squeezing three notes into the space where there are normally two.
Tuba
The largest and lowest brass instrument in the brass family. Air vibrates through a player's lips, into a mouthpiece which is connected to the instrument.
Viola
This instrument belongs to the string family. It is slightly bigger and lower in pitch than the violin, but looks similar. It can be played with a bow.
Walking Bass
A bass line (low notes) often featured in a variety of jazz styles. It goes for a walk, up and down a pattern of notes, and is often played on a double bass.
Waulking Song
A rhythmic song sung in Gaelic by the women in the Western Isles of Scotland while they waulked woolen cloth to soften and shrink it.
Whole Tone Scale
A scale containing no semitones but built entirely on whole tones.
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