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ductless glands that secrete hormones and other secretions into the blood or lymph systems for circulation throughout the body
glands that secrete to the epithelial surface; have ducts, include sweat, sebaceous, and mammory glands and glands that secrete digestive enzymes
chemical; internal secretion by a gland or organ that moves through the blood to another part of the body (target organ) to regulate body function
organ containing receptors that cause it to react to certain hormones; hormones fit into target organ like a key into a lock
hormone responsible for contractions of the uterus during labor and after child birth and stimulation of milk production; secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
located in the connective tissue surrounding the thyroid gland; secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone; regulates amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
located in the neck on both sides of the trachea and larynx; needs iodine to produce thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) which stimulate metabolic rate and promote growth
located above kidneys, secrete hormones to control metabolic rate and assist body during stress
Organ of the digestive system, also with endocrine glandular function because it secretes hormones
Islets of Langerhans produce insulin (stimulates breakdown of glucose) and cause secretion of glucagon
AKA "local hormones" because they don't have target organs but attach to adjacent cells; short-lived hormone-like substances (lipids that mimic hormones) responsible for regulation of blood pressure, pain tolerance, inflammation, and blood clotting; not steroid or amino acid-based like all other hormones
Endocrine gland and lymphatic organ; produces T-cells; changes to fat and connective tissue sometime after puberty
Continuous muscle spasms
Calcium tetany causes muscle spasms due to abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia)
Outer portion of adrenal glands that secrete corticosteroids (i.e. glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids) and some sex steroids (i.e. androgens and estrogens)
Inner portion of the adrenal glands that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (calms adrenaline after stress induces it); secreted during stress, anxiety
decreases stimulation when stimuli is no longer needed (i.e. hormone production ceases when levels are normal)
secreted by pineal gland; responsible for day/night cycles (causes sleepiness when a person is in darkness). Overproduction can lead to Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD
ADRENAL GLAND: Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol); causes tanned appearance due to increased melanin; autoimmune response causing destruction of adrenal glands
ADRENAL GLAND: adrenal cortex oversecretes ACTH, resulting in obesity, weakness, excessive hair growth, hypertension, and hyperglycemia; caused by tumor of adrenal cortex or excessive secretion from pituitary gland
PITUITARY GLAND: Undergrowth of bone and body tissue in children; caused by lack of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include growth retardation
PITUITARY GLAND: Overgrowth of body tissue before puberty, including long bones; caused by oversecretion of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include accelerated growth of long bones
PITUITARY GLAND: excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) in adults causing overgrowth of bones and soft tissue in hands, feet, and face
THYROID GLAND: Underproduction of thyroid hormone in children causing low metabolic rate, slow growth, and mental retardation; caused by underdevelopment of thyroid in utero
THYROID GLAND: Overproduction of thyroid hormone causing protrusion of the eyeballs (exopthalmos); unknown cause, possible autoimmune response
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