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Endocrine glands

ductless glands that secrete hormones and other secretions into the blood or lymph systems for circulation throughout the body

Exocrine glands

glands that secrete to the epithelial surface; have ducts, include sweat, sebaceous, and mammory glands and glands that secrete digestive enzymes


chemical; internal secretion by a gland or organ that moves through the blood to another part of the body (target organ) to regulate body function

Target organ

organ containing receptors that cause it to react to certain hormones; hormones fit into target organ like a key into a lock


hormone responsible for contractions of the uterus during labor and after child birth and stimulation of milk production; secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Sella turcica

depression in the sphenoid bone in the cranial cavity that holds the pituitary gland

Parathyroid glands

located in the connective tissue surrounding the thyroid gland; secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone; regulates amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood

Thyroid gland

located in the neck on both sides of the trachea and larynx; needs iodine to produce thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) which stimulate metabolic rate and promote growth

Adrenal glands

located above kidneys, secrete hormones to control metabolic rate and assist body during stress


Organ of the digestive system, also with endocrine glandular function because it secretes hormones

Islets of Langerhans produce insulin (stimulates breakdown of glucose) and cause secretion of glucagon


AKA "local hormones" because they don't have target organs but attach to adjacent cells; short-lived hormone-like substances (lipids that mimic hormones) responsible for regulation of blood pressure, pain tolerance, inflammation, and blood clotting; not steroid or amino acid-based like all other hormones


Endocrine gland and lymphatic organ; produces T-cells; changes to fat and connective tissue sometime after puberty


lack of appetitie


Increase of calcium in the blood


Increase of glucose in the blood


Deficiency of calcium in the blood


Deficiency of glucose in the blood


Excessive appetite


Continuous muscle spasms

Calcium tetany causes muscle spasms due to abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia)

Thyroid function tests (TFTs)

Blood tests to check T3, T4, and calcitonin

Pituitary gland

Master gland; secretes many hormones that effect growth and development

Posterior pituitary

Secretes oxytocin and ADH; hormones are steroid-based

Anterior pituitary

Secretes amino-acid based hormones (see page 362 table 10-1 for more info)

Adrenal cortex

Outer portion of adrenal glands that secrete corticosteroids (i.e. glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids) and some sex steroids (i.e. androgens and estrogens)

Adrenal medulla

Inner portion of the adrenal glands that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (calms adrenaline after stress induces it); secreted during stress, anxiety

Positive feedback

increases stimulation to produce a needed action (increase hormone production)

Negative feedback

decreases stimulation when stimuli is no longer needed (i.e. hormone production ceases when levels are normal)


secreted by pineal gland; responsible for day/night cycles (causes sleepiness when a person is in darkness). Overproduction can lead to Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD

Addison disease

ADRENAL GLAND: Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol); causes tanned appearance due to increased melanin; autoimmune response causing destruction of adrenal glands

Cushing syndrome

ADRENAL GLAND: adrenal cortex oversecretes ACTH, resulting in obesity, weakness, excessive hair growth, hypertension, and hyperglycemia; caused by tumor of adrenal cortex or excessive secretion from pituitary gland


PITUITARY GLAND: Undergrowth of bone and body tissue in children; caused by lack of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include growth retardation


PITUITARY GLAND: Overgrowth of body tissue before puberty, including long bones; caused by oversecretion of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include accelerated growth of long bones


PITUITARY GLAND: excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) in adults causing overgrowth of bones and soft tissue in hands, feet, and face


THYROID GLAND: Underproduction of thyroid hormone in children causing low metabolic rate, slow growth, and mental retardation; caused by underdevelopment of thyroid in utero

Graves disease

THYROID GLAND: Overproduction of thyroid hormone causing protrusion of the eyeballs (exopthalmos); unknown cause, possible autoimmune response

Diabetes mellitus

PANCREAS: main disease of insulin-producing pancreas; includes type I (usually develops before age 20) and type II (usually occurs in overweight adults over 40) diabetes; affected part of panreas is Islets of Langerhans

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