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36 terms

Mod F Chapter 10 - Theory

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Endocrine glands
ductless glands that secrete hormones and other secretions into the blood or lymph systems for circulation throughout the body
Exocrine glands
glands that secrete to the epithelial surface; have ducts, include sweat, sebaceous, and mammory glands and glands that secrete digestive enzymes
Hormone
chemical; internal secretion by a gland or organ that moves through the blood to another part of the body (target organ) to regulate body function
Target organ
organ containing receptors that cause it to react to certain hormones; hormones fit into target organ like a key into a lock
Oxytocin
hormone responsible for contractions of the uterus during labor and after child birth and stimulation of milk production; secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Sella turcica
depression in the sphenoid bone in the cranial cavity that holds the pituitary gland
Parathyroid glands
located in the connective tissue surrounding the thyroid gland; secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone; regulates amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
Thyroid gland
located in the neck on both sides of the trachea and larynx; needs iodine to produce thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) which stimulate metabolic rate and promote growth
Adrenal glands
located above kidneys, secrete hormones to control metabolic rate and assist body during stress
Pancreas
Organ of the digestive system, also with endocrine glandular function because it secretes hormones

Islets of Langerhans produce insulin (stimulates breakdown of glucose) and cause secretion of glucagon
Prostaglandins
AKA "local hormones" because they don't have target organs but attach to adjacent cells; short-lived hormone-like substances (lipids that mimic hormones) responsible for regulation of blood pressure, pain tolerance, inflammation, and blood clotting; not steroid or amino acid-based like all other hormones
Thymus
Endocrine gland and lymphatic organ; produces T-cells; changes to fat and connective tissue sometime after puberty
Anorexia
lack of appetitie
Hypercalcemia
Increase of calcium in the blood
Hyperglycemia
Increase of glucose in the blood
Hypocalcemia
Deficiency of calcium in the blood
Hypoglycemia
Deficiency of glucose in the blood
Polyphagia
Excessive appetite
Tetany
Continuous muscle spasms

Calcium tetany causes muscle spasms due to abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia)
Thyroid function tests (TFTs)
Blood tests to check T3, T4, and calcitonin
Pituitary gland
Master gland; secretes many hormones that effect growth and development
Posterior pituitary
Secretes oxytocin and ADH; hormones are steroid-based
Anterior pituitary
Secretes amino-acid based hormones (see page 362 table 10-1 for more info)
Adrenal cortex
Outer portion of adrenal glands that secrete corticosteroids (i.e. glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids) and some sex steroids (i.e. androgens and estrogens)
Adrenal medulla
Inner portion of the adrenal glands that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (calms adrenaline after stress induces it); secreted during stress, anxiety
Positive feedback
increases stimulation to produce a needed action (increase hormone production)
Negative feedback
decreases stimulation when stimuli is no longer needed (i.e. hormone production ceases when levels are normal)
Melatonin
secreted by pineal gland; responsible for day/night cycles (causes sleepiness when a person is in darkness). Overproduction can lead to Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD
Addison disease
ADRENAL GLAND: Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol); causes tanned appearance due to increased melanin; autoimmune response causing destruction of adrenal glands
Cushing syndrome
ADRENAL GLAND: adrenal cortex oversecretes ACTH, resulting in obesity, weakness, excessive hair growth, hypertension, and hyperglycemia; caused by tumor of adrenal cortex or excessive secretion from pituitary gland
Dwarfism
PITUITARY GLAND: Undergrowth of bone and body tissue in children; caused by lack of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include growth retardation
Gigantism
PITUITARY GLAND: Overgrowth of body tissue before puberty, including long bones; caused by oversecretion of growth hormone (GH); symptoms include accelerated growth of long bones
Acromegaly
PITUITARY GLAND: excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) in adults causing overgrowth of bones and soft tissue in hands, feet, and face
Cretinism
THYROID GLAND: Underproduction of thyroid hormone in children causing low metabolic rate, slow growth, and mental retardation; caused by underdevelopment of thyroid in utero
Graves disease
THYROID GLAND: Overproduction of thyroid hormone causing protrusion of the eyeballs (exopthalmos); unknown cause, possible autoimmune response
Diabetes mellitus
PANCREAS: main disease of insulin-producing pancreas; includes type I (usually develops before age 20) and type II (usually occurs in overweight adults over 40) diabetes; affected part of panreas is Islets of Langerhans