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chapter 10- Gender
Terms in this set (26)
the process by which kids acquire social behaviors viewed as appropriate for their sex (or gender)
sex vs. gender
sex- a persons biological identity such as female or male. Gender- a persons socially constructed identity
kids develop these beliefs that include awareness of their own gender, understanding of gender labels applied to them and to others, and knowledge of gender stereotypes.
a perception of themselves as either male or female and as having the characteristics and interests that are appropriate for their gender
post development of a gender identity, kids start to desire to possess certain gender-typed characteristics
the idea that males stay as males and females will stay as females, always
the belief that superficial changers in appearance or behavior do no alters one's gender
beliefs that members of a culture hold about acceptable or appropriate attitudes, activities, traits, occupations, and physical appearance for each gender
general patterns of appearance and behaviors associated with being a male or female in a particular culture.
with the onset of puberty, young people shift toward more typical gender-typed patterns of behavior.
(more womenly) nurturance, sympathy, concern for feelings, orientation towards children
(more manly) task and occupation oriented
a process through which children acquire either feminine or masculine traits and behaviors
Cognitive Developmental theory of gender typing
(kohlberg) proposed that from an early age children begin to differentiate between male and female roles and perceive themselves as more like same-sex than opposite-sex models. These processes begin before Freud's proposed process of identification and without deliberate teaching. Using physical and behavioral cues, such as hairstyle and clothing, children categorize themselves as male or female.
children develop schemas that help them organize and structure experience related to gender differences and gender roles
highly sensitive to gender information around them
not sensitive to gender information around them and focus more on other aspects of important
social cognitive theory of gender development
applying Bandura's social cognitive theory. It says that one way children learn about gender issues is through observational learning. By watching other children and adults of both sexes, children learn which behavior is appropriate for their own sex and actively construct notions of appropriate appearance, occupation, and behaviors for both sexes.
social structural theory of gender roles
focuses specifically on factors such as instiutionalized constrains on male and female opportunities in educational, occupational, and political spheres as determinants of gender roles
display either conventional or egalitarian gender typed schemas depending on the situation
people who possess both masculine and feminine characteristics
Baby X Experiments
Being raised with no assigned gender and not allowing any gender typing or gendered play
Halpern- Early experiences (such as exposure to visiospatial activities)
strengthens certain neural pathways
Differing gender roles and capability due to genetic
differences ("essentialist approach")
biosocial theory (Money and Ehrardt)
Social labeling influences: others react to external sex
Critical period between 18 months-3 years
social role hypothesis
argues cultural roles rather than biology
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