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Ch. 30 Seed Plants
Terms in this set (54)
What are the five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed plants?
Compare the size and independence of the gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed
Bryophyte gametophytes are large and not dependent on sporophyte. They must fend for themselves.
Seed plant gametophytes are small and develop inside of the sporophyte. They are dependent on the sporophyte
What constitutes the ovule of a seed plant?
Megaspore which develops into the female gametophyte
integument which grows into the seed coat
once fertilized, ovules become seeds
Why are pollen grains important adaptations for successful reproduction on land?
They eliminate the need for water in fertilization
Explain how a seed can be said to include contributions from three distinct generations
Seeds can survive harsh conditions through dormancy, are distributed far from their parent sporophyte, and are multicellular.
Compare spores with seeds as dispersal stages in plant life cycles
Spores like moss spores for example, can survive harsh conditions that the moss plants themselves cannot survive. Tiny size enables easy distribution.
Seeds are not as easily distributed due to their large size. They are very complex and resistant which enables them to be dormant until prime germinating conditions are present.
Explain how climatic changes with the formation of the supercontinent Pangea favored the
spread of gymnosperms.
The climate became warmer and dryer, favoring the spread of gymnosperms because of their ability to regulate water loss.
What are the four phyla of gymnosperms?
What is the phyla of angiosperms?
Are all seed plants heterosporous?
Yes all seed plants are heterosporous
What gametophyte structure becomes a seed?
The ovule becomes the seed
Are spores unicellular or multicellular?
Spore are unicellular
Are seeds unicellular or multicellular?
Seeds are multicellular
What are the four advantages of seeds?
Permits a dormant stage in life cycle
Embryonic plant is well-developed prior to dispersal
Multicellular seed coat
What is the main disadvantage of seeds?
Their large size makes them difficult to disperse
What is the life cycle of seed plants?
Pollination and Fertilization
produces spores (n)
Are pollen and ovule gametophyte or sporophyte structures?
Are all gymnosperms woody?
All gymnosperms are woody. None are herbaceous or flowering
What is distinct about phylum Coniferophyta's leaves?
Thick cuticle, sunken stomata and endodermis prevent water loss
Do conifer sperm have flagella?
Do conifer female sporangia lie on top of the megasporophyll or on the bottom?
Female megasporangia are on top of the megasporophyll
Do conifer male sporangia lie on top of the microsporophyll or below?
Male microsporangia lie below the microsporphyll
Are conifers dioecious or monoceious?
Conifers are monoecious
What is the most abundant seed plant?
Which phyla(um) has delayed fertilization?
What is phlyogenetically significant about conifers?
Which phlyum is the oldest extant seed plant?
cycadophyta is the oldest extant seed plant
Which phlyum is the most basal seed plant?
What is distinct about cycad leaves?
Curled ends and palmlike
Are cycads monocious or diecious?
What is phylogenetically significant about cycads?
Which phyla has male cones that generate heat?
cycads male cones generate heat
Do cycads have fruit?
Cycads have fleshy fruit for animal dispersal
What phlya is the longest living?
Gingkphyta trees at 1000+ years
Are ginkgos mono/dioecious?
Gingkos are dioecious
What is phylogenetically significant about ginkos?
Which phlya is air pollution tolerant?
What is phlyogenetically important about gnetophytes?
tracheids and vessel elements
Some produce nectar
Which gymnosperm phyla has a species that undergoes double fertilization?
Gnetophyta with species Ephedra (2 embryos)
What is the most advanced gymnosperm?
Which phyla has species Welwitschia?
Describe the pine life cycle and which structures are gametophyte or sporophyte
n most conifer species, each tree has both ovulate and pollen cones. The pine tree is the sporophyte. Each ovulate conecontains megasporangium. Microsporangium undergoes meiosis, producing haploid micropsores that develop into pollen grains. A pollen grain enters through the micropyle and germinates, forming a pollen tube that digests throughthe megasporangium. By meiosis, four haploid cells are produced. One survives as a megaspore. Female eggdevelops. Fertilization occurs as sperm and egg nuclei unite. The ovule becomes a seed
What is the definition of a fruit? What the functions of fruits and what consistency do they come in?
A fruit is a mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in dispersal. Some are dispersed by wind or animals. Many fruits are edible so that they are broken down in animal digestive systems and deposited in feces.
Fleshy or dry
How are fruits adapted for seed dispersal?
Timed development with coevolution
Why is a cereal grain a fruit rather than a seed?
Grains are a dry fruit with a mature ovary inside
Diagram the generalize life cycle of an angiosperm. Indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation
What is the role of the generative cell and the tube cell within the angiosperm pollen grain?
A generative cell divides to form two sperm
A tube cell produces the pollen tube
Explain the process and function of double fertilization
Double fertilization is a mechanism in angiosperms in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
It might sync the development of food storage in the seed with the development of the embryo
Distinguish between monocots and eudicots on:
Monocot Petals: 3
Dicot Petals: 4,5
Monocot cotyledon 1
Dicot cotyledon 2
Dicot veination: net
How have animals influenced the evolution of terrestrial plants and vice versa?
Plants have changed characters like petal color, seed and fruit to attract pollinating insects and dispersing animals
Coevolution has increased plant and animal diversity
Angiosperms and gymosperms have all of the following in common EXCEPT:
They do not have ovaries in common
What are the products of meiosis in the life cycle of a seed plant?
Sperm or eggs
Male or female gametophytes
Megaspores or microspores
Megaspores or microspores
Consider the seed shown in this figure. Select the correct description of this seed.
A seed includes contributions from three separate generations of plants.
The embryo within the seed is the offspring of the sporophyte plant.
The structures of a seed are all diploid (2n).
A seed includes contriubitions from 3 separate generations of plants.
In addition to a sporophyte embryo, a seed has a seed coat derived from the integuments of the "grandparent" sporophyte and a food supply derived from the tissues of the "parent" gametophyte.
Which of these structures is a separate generation from the plant sporophyte?
A male gametophyte within a pollen grain
a male gametophyte within a pollen grain
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