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Government Exam 3
Terms in this set (55)
Agenda setting/framing impacts of the media
It tells us how to think about an issue
- Medias choice of wording
- Welfare (20%)
- Assistance to the poor (63%)
- Forbidding a speech (24%)
- Not allowing a speech (48%)
Impacts on opinion: media, age, generational effect, public mood
- Age: Change as you grow older
- Generational effects: Major events, What events shape your generation?
- Public mood: We have a national identity, tied to fellow Americans; Public mood impacts private mood
Problems with polls and polling questions
- Cheap, easy to do: Software not expensive; Untrustworthy polls
- question order
we want to give good and/or socially desirable answers
- Not really looking for answers to questions
- Give negative information about the candidate
"Do you approve of Congressman Jones, who was convicted last year of driving under the influence of alcohol?"
How can horse race coverage and exit polls hurt the election process?
It can influence opinions and impact voters
Gender Gap Theory
level of political trust in the government
what is the problem with big blogs?
what is the big 6? What is their goal? What could be the problem.
GE, Newscorp, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS
- Own 90% of the media
Functions of the media
- Highlight important events
- Issues to pay attention to
- Forces politicians to respond
- Can cause panic or fear
- Interprets meanings of events
- Puts things into context
- Speculate on consequences
- Young people: information about political world
- Teaching behavior models
- Help develop opinions/values
- Most important to us?
- Confuse entertainment for news
How does the wide variety of news sources impact journalists and campaign strategies?
We can choose what we want to look at
Candidates on social media
- Used by candidates
- Not followed by undecided voters
- More for: Journalists, Politicos, Bloggers
Instagram and Vine
- Pictures speak a thousand words
- Can shape/transform perceived images
- All incumbents are on FB
-Most registered voters; Direst people to polling places; Remind people to vote
- Wide age range
- Control the message
What is the actual impact of social media on the political process?
What can it do?
- Influencing those already inclined
Engaging in discussion
- False sense of efficiency
- Actually change minds?
- Tells politicians/strategists our likes/dislikes
- Obama "nearly 10 thousand Americans turn 65 everyday. We have to be ready to face the challenges of a changing America - say you're in"
Who is likely to like something/take quizzes/reports?
What can we do to be well informed?
- Gather lots of information
- Variety of sources
- U.S. from another perspective
- Be wary of conspiracy theory based sites
examples of social media encouraging political processes
Was the Minnesota e-democracy effective?
How does our identification with our race/ethnicity impact our political involvement?
Children's identification with majority group may have more to do with desire to attain that group's:
- Education level
- Power in society
Taught cultural identification from family, peers, and community
- Native American children whose parents are civically involved; more likely to choose the native American doll
The more you identify with your culture:
-Higher self esteem
- More involved with school
- More active in community
4 theories regarding adult political life
1. persistence theory: things you learned prior to adulthood stick with you; Stronger over time
2. Impressionable years theory: attitude influenced in late adolescence/ early adulthood; Stable after that
3. Lifelong openness theory: open to influence later
4. Life cycle theory: stage of life determines your political attitude
Ways we form impressions of candidates
- Personal characteristics
- Political beliefs
How do we use the gender of a candidate stereotypically?
We associate females to be more emotional than men
How do candidates manage our impressions?
- Employ homestyle
- Take a position
- Dress the part
- Explain behavior
What is the problem with planned communication?
Speeches can seem too staged and not personal
What are the problems with the twin studies?
What do the personality traits of openness and change have to do with political ideology?
Three major differences between campaigns today and the past
- Very different than in the past:
- Professional vs. Volunteer
- In the past, largely ran by volunteers. Not anymore.
- Media Focus
- We have more access
- Importance of Money
- Use to be cheaper: not have to buy televised time, ect
What did the 2011 study on political consultants find?
- Getting information out in an exciting way
- Spinning information
- Make not so bad information sound bad
- Manipulating voters and information
Is media focus good or bad from a candidate's perspective?
- Good if the candidate is shown in a positive light
- What happens if something negative happens?
What about from the voters' perspectives?
- More convenient
- More difficult because we have to figure out what information is good/bad.
- Is it real or meant to smear the campaign?
What are the 4 motivations for running for office?
1) Strong sense of public service/civic responsibility
2) Party loyalty: run viable candidates; sacrificial lamb
Personal goals: ambition, strong issue dedication
3) Some people want power, money
- Some just want to accomplish goals
4) Asked to run
- Someone outstanding in the community
Be familiar with the 2012 election cycle (in terms of money), and what most Americans think about campaign spending.
House: 1.6 million per race
- 2,000 per day
Senate: 10.4 million per race
- 14,000 per day
Total spent in 2012 Elections, Congress alone: 7 billion dollars
What does the Supreme Court say about campaign spending?
Understand the three assumptions we hold about money in elections. Which assumptions are true, and under what circumstances?
1) More money spent = more votes received; In other words, money buys votes
2) The candidate who spends the most is most likely to win.
3) Money wins seats AND helps people keep seats.
When did voter turnout in America begin to decline? What caused the decline in voter turnout?
- Near the bottom in voter turnout
- 1960's: general distrust in the government
- Vietnam War
- Participation will not make a difference.
- Alienated from parties.
- Candidates aren't appealing.
What has changed since WWII that should have made us more informed voters?
1. Education levels
2. Technological developments
3. Removal of voting barriers
What information do we need to make the best vote choice? What impacts how much time and effort we will devote to gathering this information?
- We should be able to recognize policy differences between candidates
- Individually motivated to gather information:
- Resources needed to understand information
- Do we have time to gather necessary/factual information?
- Do we think the cost of gathering information is worth the benefit?
- Party Identification!
- ½ of all voters vote based on party recognition
- A short cut; Issue stance identification
What shortcut do some people use to make a vote choice, instead of gathering policy information?
- Name recognition
- straight party voting
Super PACs: what are they, what can they do?
Attention on swing and battleground states: how does this impact voters?
How does micro-targeting work?
Is a change of power possible in the House? What is more likely to happen in the House?
- Highly unlikely that there will be a power change
- Reduce majority
What is likely to happen in the Senate? What could this potentially impact?
Potential for power change
Who is likely to be the nominee for the Republicans? What about the Democrats?
- Supports death penalty
- Does not support minimum wage increase
- Lower taxes for the middle class
- Supports the Second Amendment
- Pro-Life/Defund Planned Parenthood
- Wall built on the Mexican/American border
- Global Warming is not man-made
- Does not want to label genetically modified foods
- Simple answers
- Immigration stance
- He's a political outsider
- Says what is on his mind
- Says what is on his mind
- Lack of experience
- Supports death penalty/ limited purposes
- Raise minimum wage to $12
- Does not support tax cuts for wealthy
- Gun control
- Pro-Choice/Fund Planned Parenthood
- Path to citizenship
- Global Warming is man-made
- Supports GMO labeling
- First female president
- Washington insider
Pros/cons of television ads
- Dumb down; Why do research?
- Distrust; 69% don't believe
- Media Influence
- Little regulation; How do we know if its really true? Free speech issue
- Increased negativity; Attacks against other candidates; We as the people don't want to deal with it
- Potential for misinformation
- Fast information
- Speak directly to voters
- Stimulate turnout; Can encourage people to go vote?; questionable
- Beginning of Campaign
- When ahead in the race
- Low Name recognition
- Biography: Introduction, Issue stance, Relatable/ likeable
- Comparison: Not super impactful, Personal, Policy/Record
- When behind in a campaign
- Retain information: Reinforce opinion
- More interesting: Claim to dislike
Do advertisements work? What are ads most likely to do for a candidate?
- Name recognition: Especially challengers
- Short-term effects: 1-2 weeks
- Run lots of ads: 1,000 run, .5 point increase
- New issue: commercials don't work they way they used to
- Battle to be the one with the most ads: Report on this spending translates to candidate power
Why is humor used in negative advertising? Be prepared to identify the humorous negative ads viewed in class.
- Soften the blow
What is the major problem with web-based political ads?
Only people who already support a candidate are going to see these ads
Which advertisement was famous for airing one time? Why did this ad have impact (consider the media's role in this advertisement)?
Morning in america???
What made the "Ike for President" advertisement impactful?
Its was repetitive and catchy
What did the results of Franz's study prove about advertisements in campaigns?
What does Brader's study say about negative advertisements?
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