Genetics Final 2016
Terms in this set (34)
the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another
deoxyribonucleic acid, It is the carrier of genetic information.
carrier genetic information in the form of genes.
Quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
Different versions of a gene- variations in instructions. The combination inherited will determine what trait the offspring shows.
Unit of heredity; segment of DNA;band on a chromosome. A minimum of 2 work together to code for a specific trait or function.
Must be present for the organism to show the trait. Must inherit the allele from both parents for the trait to show. (bb)
When present in the organisms DNA, the trait codes for will always show. Trait is shown even if it is inherited from one parent.
Another term for heterozygous (mix).
Homozygous for many generations.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
A chart that shows all the possible combinations from a genetic cross. Used to determine probability of offspring inheritance.
Physical trait the organism has that is based its genotype. This is what we physically observe.
An organisms specific genetic information, or code for a certain trait. Represented by a pair of letters.
Having two of the same alleles to code for the trait.
Having two different alleles to code for the trait.
Cell division process; part of the cell cycle where one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells. Takes place in four phases that results in identical body cells. Asexual organisms use this to produce offspring and growth and repair for multi cellular asexual organisms. Sexual organisms only need this for growth and repair of body cells.
Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cell
"Intermission" between cell divisions. Cell grows to mature in size and functions. DNA replicates itself, and it gets ready to divide into two cells.
Production of offspring from a single parent WITHOUT the joining of sperm and egg. The offspring are generally identical to the parent.
The spliting of a cell to form a new organism.
The joining of sex cells to form a zygote that will become a complete organism.
Combines genetic material from TWO PARENTS. Unique combinations of parental genes are passed on through gametes to form offspring. Offspring are genetically different from their parents.
another name for sex cells
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce. Overtime the trait will become more and more common in the population.
Not always physical fights- struggle between organisms for food, resources, and escaping predators.
A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also reproduce.
Process where individuals that are better suited for their environments survive and reproduce.
Differences between individuals of the same species.
A change in a gene or chromosome that leads individuals of a species to have little differences than the whole species (error).
How a species survives/changes over generations
Remains of an organism in the form of rock or skeleton that have been buried for a long time.
When a species completely dies out