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Science Chapter 13
Terms in this set (118)
The movement of water through Earth's systems, powered by the suns energy.
The process by which molecules of a liquid water escape into the air after becoming water vapor.
The process by which water vapor becomes liquid water.
A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
The percentage of water vapor that is actually in the water compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature.
An instrument that can measure relative humidity.
In the water cycle, water vapor enters the atmosphere by __ and __ and leaves by __.
1. evaporation from the oceans and other bodies of water
__ is the process by which molecules of liquid water escape into the air after becoming water vapor.
__ is the process by which water vapor becomes liquid water.
Water vapor is also added to the air by __. Water __, ___, and __. __ also release water vapor into the air every time they exhale.
enters the roots of plants, rises to the leaves, and is released into the air as water vapor
know the steps of Water Cycle and be able to discuss
In the __, the water vapor enters the atmosphere by evaporation from the oceans and other bodies of water and leaves by condensation. __ is the process by which molecules of liquid water escape into the air after becoming water vapor. __ is the process by which water vapor becomes liquid water.
Water is also added to the air by __. Water enters the roots of plants, rises the leaves, and is released into the air as __. __ also release water vapor into the air every time they exhale.
__ is a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air. The ability of air to hold water vapor depends on its __. Warm Air can hold more water vapor than cool air.
Weather reports usually refer to the water vapor in the air as relative humidity. ___ is the percentage of water vapor that is actually in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature.
Relative humidity can be measured with an instrument called a __.
The relative humidity can be found by comparing the temperatures of the __ and __ thermometers.
wet-bulb and dry-bulb
the temperature at which condensation begins
wispy, feathery clouds
clouds that look like cotton
clouds that form in flat layers
Clouds form when water vapor in the air condenses to form __ or __.
liquid water or ice crystals
Two conditions are required for condensation: __ and __.
cooling of the air and the presence of particles in the air
The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The temperature at which condensation begins is called the __.
For water vapor to condense and form clouds, tiny particles must be present in the atmosphere so that the water has a surface on which to condense. Most of these particles are __, __, or __.
salt crystals, dust from soil, or smoke
Liquid water that condenses from the air onto a cooler surface is called __. Ice deposited on a surface that is below freezing is called __.
Scientist classify cloud into three main types based on their shape: __, __, and __. Clouds are further classified by their altitude.
cirrus, cumulus, and stratus
Wispy, feathery clouds are called __. Cirrus clouds form at high altitudes. They are made of __ and indicate __.
ice crystals, fair weather
Cumulonimbus clouds are also known as nimbus clouds. They are usually known to bring bad weather. The bad weather comes quick and then it's over.
Clouds that form near the ground are called __.
Clouds that look like cotton called __. Short cumulus clouds usually indicate __.
Clouds that form in flat layers are known as __. Stratus clouds usually cover all of us in the sky and are a dull, gray color. As stratus clouds thicken, they may produce __, __, or __.
drizzle, rain, or snow
any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface
an opened tube that collects rain
__ is any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
Common types of precipitation include: __, __, __, __, and __.
rain, sleet, freezing rain, snow, and hail
The most common kind of precipitation is __. Precipitation made up of smaller drops of water is called __. Precipitation of even smaller drops is called __.
An open-ended tube that collects rain is called __. The amount of rain is measured by dipping a ruler into the water or by reading a scale.
On a cold day, raindrops can sometimes fall as liquid water but freeze when they touch a cold surface. This kind of precipitation is called __.
A __ forms when water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals.
A __ starts as an ice pellet inside a cold region of a cloud. __ carry the hailstone up through the cold region many times. Each time the hailstone goes to the cold region, new layer of ice forms around it. Eventually the hailstone because heavy enough to fall to the ground.
Sometimes raindrops fall through a layer of air that is below 0 degrees Celsius, __. As they fall, the raindrops freeze into solid particles of ice.
the freezing point of water
a huge body of air in the lower atmosphere that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.
warm air masses form in the tropics and have low air pressure
cold air masses from north of 50 degrees north latitude or south of 50 degrees south latitude and has high air pressure
air masses form over oceans
air masses form over land
bands of high-speed winds
the boundary where the air masses meet
the warm air mass is cut off
a circled L on a weather map stands for "low" and indicates an area of relatively low air pressure
high-pressure centers of dry air, shown by an H on a weather map
A __ is huge body of air in the lower atmosphere that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.
Four major types of air masses influence weather in North America: __, __, __, and __.
maritime tropical, continental tropical, maritime polar, and continental polar
The characteristics of an air mass depends on the temperatures and moisture content of the region over which air mass forms. __, __ air has a higher pressure, while warm, __ air has low pressure.
__, or warm, air masses form in the tropics and have low air pressure. __, or cold, Air masses form north of 50 degrees north latitude and south of 50 degrees south latitude. Polar air masses have high air pressure.
Whether an air mass is humid or dry depends on whether it forms over __ or __. __ air masses form over oceans. __ air masses form over land. Therefore, continental air masses are drier than maritime air masses.
water or land
cool, humid air masses form over the icy cold north Atlantic Ocean.
Large air masses form over Canada and Alaska and can bring bitterly cold weather with low humidity.
Warm, humid air masses form over the Pacific ocean. In summer, they usually bring hot, humid weather, summer showers, and thunderstorms.
Hot, dry air masses form mostly in summer over dry areas of the Southwest and northern Mexico. They can bring hot, dry weather to the southern Great Plains.
When an air mass moves into an area and interacts with other air masses, it causes the weather to change, sometimes drastically.
The prevailing westerlies, The major wind belts over the continental United States, generally push air masses from __ to __.
west to east
__ are bands of high-speed winds. As jet streams generally blow from west to east, air masses are carried along their tracks.
As huge air masses of air move across the land and ocean, they collide with each other, but do not easily mix. The boundary where the air masses meet becomes a __. Storms and changeable weather often develop along fronts.
Colliding air masses conform four types of fronts: __, __, __, and __.
Cold fronts, warm fronts, stationary fronts, and occluded fronts
__ is dense and tends to sink. __ is less dense and tends to rise. The warm air is pushed upward along the leading edge of the colder air. Cold front forms.
cold air, warm air
Cold fronts tend to arrive quickly, because they're leading edges move along the ground. They can cause abrupt weather changes, including __. After a cold front passes, colder, drier air moves in, often bringing __, __, and __.
clear skies, a shift in wind direction, and lower temperatures
Clouds and precipitation also accompany __. Because warm fronts arrive slightly, the weather may be rainy or cloudy for several days. After warm front passes, the weather tends to be warmer and humid.
The most complex water situation occurs at an __, where a warm air mass is caught between cooler air masses. The two cooler air masses meet in the middle and may mix. The warm air mass is cut off, or __, from the ground. As a warm air cools and it's water vapor condenses, the weather may turn cloudy and rain or snow may fall.
Sometimes cold and warm air masses meet, but neither one can move to the other. In this case, the front is called a __. But if a stationary front stalls, it may bring many days of __ and __.
clouds and precipitation
A circled L on a weather map stands for "low," and indicates an area of __. A swirling center of low air pressure is a __. Cyclones and decreasing air pressure are associated with __, __, and __.
relatively low air pressure
clouds, wind, and precipitation
__ high-pressure centers of dry air, shown by an H on a weather map. The descending air and a cyclone generally causes ___ weather.
a violent disturbance in the atmosphere
a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
a sudden spark, or electrical discharge, as these charges jump between parts of a cloud, between nearby clouds, or between a cloud and the ground
a tropical cyclone with winds of 19 km/h (74 mph) or higher.
A "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where the hurricane lands.
a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a thunderstorm to touch Earth's surface.
move away temporarily
A __ is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere. Storms involve sudden changes in air pressure, which causes __. These are several types of severe storms: __, __, __, and __.
rapid air movements
winter storms, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and torndaoes
All year round, most precipitation begins in clouds as snow. If the air is colder than 0 degrees Celsius all the way to the ground, the precipitation falls as __. Heavy snow can block roads, trapping people in their homes and delaying emergency vehicles. Extreme cold can damage crops and cause water pipes to burst.
A __ is a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning. Thunderstorms form in large __ clouds, also known as thunderheads. Most cumulonimbus clouds form on hot, humid afternoons or evenings.
Heavy rain falls, sometimes along with hail. Many thunderstorms form in the spring and southern states or on the western plains.
__ is a sudden spark, or electrical discharge , as these charges jump between parts of a cloud between nearby clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. Because lightning is electricity, it is easily conducted by metal.
A lightning bolt can heat the air near it to as much as 30,000 degrees Celsius, much hotter than the sun's surface. The rapidly heated air expands explosively. Thunder is the sound of the explosion. Because light travels faster than sound, you see lightning before you hear thunder.
__ can cause severe damage. Lightning can also cause damage. When lightning strikes people or animals, it acts like a powerful electric shock. Lightning can cause __, __, and __.
unconsciousness, serious burns, and heart failure
A major danger during severe thunderstorms is __. Some floods occur when so much water pours into a stream or river that its banks overflow, covering the surrounding land with water. In urban areas, floods can occur when the ground is already saturated by heavy rains. A __ is a sudden, violent flood that occurs shortly after a storm.
A __ is a tropical cyclone with winds of 19 km/h (74 mph) or higher. Hurricanes form in the __, __, and __. In the western Pacific, they are called __.
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean
A hurricane begins over warm ocean water as a __, or a tropical disturbance. A hurricane draws its energy from the __,__ air at the ocean's surface.
At the center is a ring of clouds, called the __. When the eye arrives, the weather changes suddenly. The air grows calm and the sky may clear. After the eye passes, the storm resumes, but the wind blows from the opposite direction.
Hurricanes can last longer than other storms-- __ or more. Hurricanes that form in the Atlantic Ocean are steered by easterly trade winds toward the __ and the __. After a hurricane passes over land, it no longer has warm, moist air to draw energy from. The hurricane gradually weakens.
Caribbean islands and the southeastern United States
A __ is a "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where the hurricane lands.
A __ is a rapidly whirling funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a thunderstorm that reaches down to touch Earth's surface. If a tornado occurs over a lake or ocean, the storm is called a __. Tornadoes are usually brief, but can be deadly.
Note: there can be a tornado in a hurricane but there can't be a hurricane in a tornado
Tornadoes most commonly develop in thick __--the same clouds that bring thunderstorms. Tornadoes often occur when thunderstorms are likely- in spring and early summer, late in the afternoon when the ground is warm.
When the air masses meet, the cold air moves under the warm air, __. A single squall line can produce ten or more tornadoes.
forcing it to rise
Tornado damage comes from both __ and __.
strong winds and flying debris
The scale was created by Dr. T. Theodore Fujita. The scale goes from light damage (EF0) to extreme damage (EF5). Only about __% of tornadoes are ranked a EF4 or EF5.
If you are caught in a snowstorm, try to find shelter from the __.
During thunderstorms, avoid places where lightning may strike. Also, avoid objects that conduct electricity, such as __ and __.
metal objects and bodies of water
Today, water satellites can track the paths of hurricanes. A "__" indicates that hurricane conditions are possible in an area within the next 36 hours. You should be prepared to __, or move away temporarily. A "___" means that hurricane conditions are expected within the next 24 hours.
A "__" is an announcement that tornadoes are possible in your area. A "__" is an announcement that a tornado has been seen in the sky or on weather radar.
If there is no basement during a tornado, move to the middle of the __. Stay away from windows and doors. If you are outdoors, lie flat in a ditch.
scientists who study and try to predict weather
are lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
lines joining places that have the same temperature
__ are scientists who study and try to predict weather.
Meteorologists use __, __, __, and __ to analyze weather data and to prepare weather forecasts. Weather reporters get their information from the National Weather Service, which uses balloons, satellites, radar, and surface instruments to gather data.
maps, charts, computers, and other technology
Short-range forecasts- forecasts for up to __ days. Technological improvements in gathering weather data and using computers have improved the accuracy of weather forecasts.
Weather stations gather data from surface locations for __, __, __, __, and __ and __. The National Weather Service has established a network of more than 1,700 surface weather observation sites.
temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed and direction
__ carry instruments into the troposphere and lower stratosphere, The instruments measure temperature, air pressure, and humidity.
__ orbit the exopshere. Cameras on weather satellites can make images of Earth's __, __, __, and __.
surface, clouds, storms, and snow cover
Computers process weather data quickly to help forecasters make __.
Data from many local weather stations all over the country are assembled into weather maps at the National Weather Service.
__ are lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure. __ are lines joining places that have the same temperature.
Standard symbols on weather maps show __, __, __, and __.
fronts, areas of high and low pressure, types of precipitation, and temperatures
But even with extremely powerful computers, it is unlikely that forecaster will ever be able to predict the weather accurately a month in advance. This has to do with the so-called "__." The atmosphere works in such a way that a small change in the weather today can mean a larger change in the weather a week later! The name refers to a scientist's suggestion that even the flapping of a butterfly's wings causes a tiny disturbance in the atmosphere.
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