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77 terms

Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Behavior

Hockenbury&Hockenbury- Discovering Psychology 4th Edition
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Biological Psychology
Specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems; also called biopsychology or psychobiology.
Neuroscience
The study of nervous system, especially the brain.
Neuron
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
Glial Cells
Support cells taht assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
Sensory Neuron
Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
Interneuron
Type of neuron that communicates information fro one neuron to the next.
Cell Body
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma.
Dendrites
Muliple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and recieve information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
Axon
The long, fluid-filled tube taht carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
Myelin Sheath
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their commmunication speed.
Action Potential
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
Stimulus Threshold
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
Resting potential
State in which a neuron is prepared to activate the communicate its message if it recieves sufficient stimulation.
All-or-none Law
The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur.
Synapse
The point of communication between two neurons.
Synaptic gap
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and teh dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
Axon Terminals
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
Synaptic Vesicles
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
Synaptic Transmission
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect the adjoining neurons.
Reuptake
The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorded by a pre-synaptic neuron so that they can be recycled and used again.
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in memory function.
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
Serotonin
Neurotransmitter involved in sleep and emotions.
Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
GABA
Neurotransmitter that usually communicated an inhibitory message.
Endorphins
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
Nervous System
The primary internal communication netwoek of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Nerves
Bundles of neurons axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system.
Central Nervous System
Division of nervous system that consist of the brain and spinal cord.
Spinal Reflexes
Simple, automatic behaviors taht are processed in the spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Branch ot eh autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources.
Endocrine System
System of glands located throughtout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones
Chemical messagers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands.
Pituitary Gland
Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
Adrenal Glands
Pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response.
Adrenal Cortex
The outer portion of the adrenal glands.
Adrenal Medulla
The inner portion of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Gonads
The endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males.
Phrenology
A discredited pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and eintelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
Cortical Localization
The notion that different functions are located or localized in differeent areas of the brain: also called localization of function.
Electroencephalograph
An instrument that produces a graphic record of the brain's electrical activity by using electrodes placed on the scalp.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the brain using electromagnetic signals generated by the brain in response to magnetic fields.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels.
Cognitive Neuroscience
The study of the neural basis of cogitive process that integrates contributions from psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.
Neurogensis
The development of new neurons.
Brainstem
A region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
Hindbrain
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
Medulla
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation.
Pons
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps corrdinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
Cerebellum
A large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium.
Reticular Formation
A network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep; also called the reticular activating system.
Midbrain
The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information.
Sustantia nigra
An area of the midbrain that is involed in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons.
Forebrain
The largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes; also called cerebrum.
Cerebral Cortex
The wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
Cerebral hemispheres
The nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex.
Corpus Callosum
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communications link between them.
Temporal Lobe
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information.
Occipital Lobe
An area at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
Parietal Lobe
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the tempral lobe that processes somatic sensations.
Frontal Lobe
Thelargest lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning and emotional control.
Hippocampus
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories.
Thalamus
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
A peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
Amygdala
An almond-shaped forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in emotion and memory.
Cortical Localization
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain; also called localization of function.
Lateralization of function
The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain.
Aphasia
The partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain injury or damage.
Split-brain
A surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum.
Functional Plasticity
The brain's ability to shift function from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
Structural Plasticity
The brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.