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8th Grade Chapter 2 Vocabulary Elements and the Periodic Table
Terms in this set (31)
is the smallest particle that still can be considered an element.
negatively charged particles outside of the nucleus
a small, dense region in the center of an atom. Contains all of the protons and neutrons of the atom.
positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus
levels within the electron cloud where electrons can be found.
a particle with no electric charge. found in the nucleus of an atom, along with the protons.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atoms with the same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons.
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atom.
the average mass of all the isotopes of that element.
is an arrangement of elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties. (The word periodic means "in a regular, repeated pattern.")
contain either one or two letters. Is an abbreviation of the element's name in English or their Latin name.
rows of elements. there are 7 on the periodic table. From left to right, the properties of the elements change in a pattern that can be used to classify the elements.
column of elements; also known as families. have similar chemical properties that classify them.
elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat. They also tend to be shiny and bendable—like copper wire, for instance.
is shiny and reflective.
one that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets or other shapes.
one that can be pulled out, or drawn, into long wires.
is the ability of an object to transfer heat.
The ability of an object to carry electric current
The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other substances.
The deterioration of a metal due to a chemical reaction in the environment.
The metals of Group 1, from lithium (Li) to francium (Fr), are the most reactive metals in the periodic table. Are so reactive that they are never found as uncombined elements in nature. They are found only in compounds.
alkaline earth metal
The metals of Group 2, are harder and denser, and melt at higher temperatures than the alkali metals. Are very reactive, though not as reactive as the alkali metals. These metals are also never found uncombined in nature.
The elements in Groups 3 through 12, Most of these metals are hard and shiny solids. However, mercury is a liquid at room temperature. Except for mercury, the transition metals often have high melting points and high densities. They are also good conductors of heat and electric current, and are very malleable.
is an element that lacks most of the properties of a metal. Except for hydrogen, the nonmetals are found on the right side of the periodic table. most nonmetals are poor conductors of electric current and heat. Solid nonmetals tend to be dull and brittle.
is made up of two atoms. Br I N Cl H O F
Group 17 contains the nonmetals fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine, and iodine. means "salt forming." All of the halogens are very reactive, but when combined with other elements they become quite useful.
The elements in Group 18; They do not ordinarily form compounds because atoms of noble gases do not usually gain, lose, or share electrons. are usually nonreactive
Between the metals and the nonmetals in the periodic table; have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. All metalloids are solids at room temperature. The metalloids are brittle, hard, and somewhat reactive.
are substances that can conduct electric current under some conditions but not under other conditions. Semiconductors are used to make computer chips, transistors, and lasers.
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