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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Factors affecting serum Ca balance
  2. Vitamin D3/D2
  3. OT (oxytocin) release
  4. Important bone cells
  5. Parvocellular neurosecreatory neurons of hypothalamus
  1. a neuroendocrine reflex - result of sensory input to SC -> brain; neuron depolarization in AP of pars nervosa -> Ca entry -> exocytosis of OT; AP reach axon tips in 0.5-1.5m/s; ex of stimulus released coupling: rapid response
  2. b GI absorption; storage in bone as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (80% Ca in bone); relationship to P: [Ca] x [PO4] = K; PO4 stored in bone/tissue not carefully regulated
  3. c small size, in many hyponuclei, produce hypophysiotropic hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary fxn, axons extend to the primary plexus of median eminence
  4. d osteoblasts (new bone formation); osteoclasts (bone breakdown, 18% Ca in bone now replaced in one year)
  5. e Prehormones for 1,25(OH)2D3; Vit D3 (cholecalciferol) synthesized in skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol upon exposure to UVB, also in animal tissue; Ergocalciferol (D2) from plants can be used to form 1,25(OH)2D3

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. gluconeogenesis leads to inc FFA and glycerol; dec VLDK clearance due to dec lipoprotein lipase activity (requires insulin)
  2. distributed diffusely; clear cells tained by silver or chromium salts; termed: argyphil cells, argentaffin cells, enterochromaaffic cells, or enterochromaffin like cells(ECL); GI and pacreatic horms = gastroenteropancreatic horms
  3. Inc K+ in urine
  4. Downgrowth from neurohypophysis
  5. suffix: tropes; ex: gonadotropes (synthesize LH, TSH)

5 True/False questions

  1. Neurovascular hypothesishormonal rather than direct neural control of AP gland; Geoffrey Harris supporter;


  2. GH fxnsF (stimulate development of ovarian follicles) M (stimulate synthesis of androgen binding protein in sertolli cells, formation of LH receptors in Leydig cells)


  3. Cholecystokinin (CCK)Produced by I cells of duodenum; stimulus for release: HCL, AA, FAs


  4. Binding of 1,25(OH)2D3 to HSPsVit D3 binds to transcalciferin in blood, goes to liver with 25,hydroxylate forming 25(OH)Vit D3; blood moves to kidneys and reacts wtih 1a-hydroxylate stimulated by PTH, forming active 1,25(OH)2D3


  5. Factors affecting AVP release: Angiotensin IIHyperglycemia, AA, FFA, ketone bodies, glucagon, acetylcholine (vagal nerve), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)


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