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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. High leptin levels from large fat cells due to eating too much
  2. Clinical importance GnRH
  3. Factors stimulating glucagon release
  4. Effects of insulin on liver
  5. Neurovascular hypothesis
  1. a induce ovulation; treat oligospermia, constant exposure causes gonadotrope desensitization; GnRH longacting analogs = antifertility agent
  2. b increase glucose uptake indirectly by stimulating glucokinase which inhibits glucose-6 phosphate; inc glucose storage by stimulating glucose sythetase; inc lipid sythesis by stimulating triglyceride sythetase
  3. c stimulate a-MSH release which binds to melanocortin-4 receptor, decreases appetitie/eating
  4. d hormonal rather than direct neural control of AP gland; Geoffrey Harris supporter;
  5. e hypoglycemia; AA (arginine and alanine blocked by glucose); Epi, norepi

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. aka glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, enterogastrone; made in K cells, small intestine; stimulus for release are fats and glucose
  2. Dwarfism (underproduction); Gigantism (excess GH, linear bone growth); Acromegaly (excess GH in adults)
  3. <280 = little/no release, >280 = increase release; release very sensitive to change; osmoreceoptors in anterior hypothalamus detect changes in blood Na
  4. osteoblasts (new bone formation); osteoclasts (bone breakdown, 18% Ca in bone now replaced in one year)
  5. stimulate growth, extracellular deposition of bones, lipases that convert triglycerides to FFAs and body fat

5 True/False questions

  1. Adiponectinincrease insulin sensitivity; levles inversely related to body fat; acts wtih insulin to inc glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle and block glucose formation in liver; decreased in DM2


  2. aMSH presentMSH binds to melanocortin1 receptor; inc in cAMP dec "free" Ca2+ causing relaxation of melanofilaments which allow melanosomes to spread, causing skin to darken


  3. Hormone synthesizing cellsParathyroid (PTH), Calcitonin (CT), 1a,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] = VitD = calcitrol


  4. Long loop feedbackgluconeogenesis leads to inc FFA and glycerol; dec VLDK clearance due to dec lipoprotein lipase activity (requires insulin)


  5. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)Glucose preduction from noncarb carbon substrates: AA from proteins, glycerol from fats