Criminal Investigation Chapter 14
Terms in this set (63)
refers to all the ways a person can falsely represent a fact in order to get someone to surrender something of value
fraud- tax evasion
occurs when a person or corporation provides deceptive information to avoid paying taxes
occurs when anything of value is offered in exchange for influence in decisions or actions of the taker
occurs when a person who is entrusted with the money of a business uses it for his or her own use and benefit
involves the use of a false document or instrument to defraud the recipient. Types include counterfeit checks, the unauthorized use of credit cards, false medical prescriptions and counterfeit merchandise
involves a demand for money to a void bodily harm, destruction of property, or the disclosure of secrets
occurs when one person obtains property from another as a result of actual or threatened force or fear or by using the authority of an official office (acting as a police officer)
occurs when a person who sells an item pays the buyer part of the proceeds from that sale
refers to operating an illegal business for personal profit
fraud- insider trading
occurs when a person uses privileged "inside" information to profit through the trading of stock ina publicly held corporation
fraud- money laundering
refers to the investment of illegally obtained money (drug sales, racketeering) into legitimate businesses so that the original source of money cannot be established
fraud- investment fraud
occurs when an individual obtains money from another under the false pretext of a legitimate investment
fraud- insurance fraud
refers to when car accidents and injuries are staged, reported property damage is bogus, property damage is self-inflicted (arson), or even when one's death is fraudulently reported to collect insurance benefits
welfare and food stamp fraud
involves obtaining or using welfare benefits or food stamps illegally
can take a variety of forms, the most common of which is auction fraud, in which the property being bid on is misrepresented or not provided with a winning bid. In addition, the internet provides opportunities for many other forms of fraud (credit card fraud, investment fraud, etc.)
involves the stealing and using of an individual's personal information without their permission.
Has a financial motive typically, though revenge and embarrassment can also be motivators
criminal identity theft
financial identity theft
medical identity theft
4 types of identity theft
criminal identity theft
posing as another person when apprehended for a crime
financial identity theft
using another's identity to obtain credit, goods, and services
using another's information to assume his or her identity in daily life
medical identity theft
using another's identity to obtain medical care or drugs
stealing another's identity
usually depends on first obtaining protected information about a person such as birth date, address, or social security number.
Documentation such as energy or telephone bills with account numbers, bank or credit card statements with account numbers, or convenience checks can also be used
stealing wallets or purses
stealing mail in various ways, from simply taking it from unsecured mailboxes to submitting a fraudulent change of address form to the post office to have a person's mail redirected
searching through garbage or dumpsters (dumpster diving)
obtaining a victim's credit report by posing as someone who is legally permitted to do so, such as a landlord or employer
working with employees of firms that maintain client or employee records to illegally obtain those records, or, if they are employees, access the information themselves
hack into corporate computers, steal customer and employee data, and then sell that data to other identity thieves
create counterfeit checks and credit or debit cards using another person's name
Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions (FACT) Act
designed to provide consumer with information on their credit histories to increase detection of identity theft
Identity Theft Investigations
They can be simple or complicated, depending on the number of agencies involved and the extent of the crime known
First, the victim's local police department has first jurisdiction of the crime
The victim provides information regarding the crimes, always verifying that they are who they say they are
Next, investigators may examine the fraudulent charges with the financial and credit bureau documents
E-Information and FinCEN are resources available to investigators of identity theft
The goal is to identify the perpetrator and other potential victims
free internet site operated by the US Secret Services that is available to law enforcement agencies and investigators and includes:
bank identification listings
credit card information
counterfeit check database
genuine and counterfeit identification document database
Fraudulent document database
FinCen (Financial Crimes Enforcement Network)
potentially useful intelligence and information resource to use when investigation identity theft and other financial crimes. Through this, authorized users can access nearly forty different databases in three main categories: law enforcement, financial, and commercial.
credit and debit card fraud
usually involves the stealing of a card and then using it to make unauthorized purchases.
most common methods of committing credit and debit card fraud
"Passing and cashing"
Alteration of checks
Presentation of the check or card at checkout
Denial of receiving a legitimate purchase
passing and cashing
knowingly writing a personal check from his (or another person's) nearly empty checking account. Recipient then takes the check to a different bank and cashes it, while the two share the proceeds.
Alteration of checks
an offender can alter the name on a check or the amount of a check in order to cash it or in order to receive more cash than intended
Presentation of check or card at checkout
offender can present a fraudulent/stolen check or card at checkout in order to make a purchase.
"Card not present" purchase
offenders can make this kind of purchase, as would be done when making a purchase via telephone or the internet. This method allows the offender to avoid scrutiny from the salesperson at the point of sell.
Offender needs to have the credit card number and the security code printed on the back of the card.
Denial of receiving purchase
Offenders can order an item with a legitimate credit card but then deny ordering and/or receiving the item. Postal package tracking and requiring signatures upon delivery may reduce these opportunities for offenders to provide a basis upon which to investigate them
Investigating Check/Credit card fraud
Obtain a hard copy of the fraudulent documents
Investigate the robbery or burglary associated with the crime, if it exists
Searching suspect's possessions
Determine the date, time, and place of the fraudulent use
locate the fraudulently purchased property
prescription drug fraud
involves the misuse of drugs. Pain relievers and stimulants are often the prescription drugs of choice for many criminals.
methods of obtaining prescription drugs
Impersonation of medical staff
Illegal purchases on the internet
visiting multiple doctors to obtain multiple prescriptions
investigation of prescription drug fraud
A third party notifying the police
The police themselves discovering the illegal drugs
A doctor's office or pharmacy report suspicious behaviors to the police
crimes where the computer system is the target
cyber-attacks- denial of service attack
designed to overwhelm a website in order to slow the transactions performed on the site or to crash it altogether
computer program that is designed to disable or shut down a single computer
designed to travel to other computers in the network for the same purpose
software that collects and sends information about computer usage to another person or computer without the computer user's consent.
involves the infiltration of a computer or computer system in order to gain control of that system
involves obtaining usernames, passwords, and other personal information through trickery
involves one person masquerading as another through information distortion.
Occurs when it appears that an email was sent from an address from which it was actually not, or when a phone call is received from a number that was not actually used to make the call
may involve sending or posting mean or false messages, starting or circulating rumors, stealing email passwords and sending messages through the Internet. It may or may not be criminal.
a form of cyber bullying that often leads to criminal charges.
typically involves the sending of compromising photos to a person claiming to be someone they are not. The person receiving the photos threatens to distribute the photos unless the victim agrees to some demand.
can be widely distributed through the use of the Internet, further complicating the crime through the use of anonymity and accessibility
3 crimes constituting child pornography
1. production of the pornographic images
2. distribution of the pornographic images
3. downloading/possession of the pornographic images
Investigating Child Pornography
Focus on electronic (digital) evidence such as hard drives, Web browser history, e-mail and chat logs, digital cameras, mobile phones, IP addresses, and "digger engine" software
The collection and processing of this evidence is done by trained experts
Investigators locate and remove child pornography sites through the use of undercover sting operations or "buy bust" operations
These crimes come to the attention of the police through the public, computer technicians, or victims
digger engine software
investigators ay monitor the online and chat room activity of offenders through the recording of IP addresses
information and data of value to a police investigation that is stored, retrieved, or transmitted by an electronic device.
The device must first be identified as being potentially relevant in the investigation.
can be found in the memory of the device
Internet Protocol (IP) Address
an identifying number that is associated with a computer. This is incredibly beneficial in criminal investigations.
3 types of memory
includes hard drives, floppy discs, andt apes
includes compact discs (CDS) and DVDS
consists of USB flash drives, memory cards, and flash memory microchips
Steps in Investigating Digital Memory
First, all of the data on the storage device, most often a hard drive of the computer, is copied to a new blank hard drive.
The imaged hard drive can then be compared to the original hard drive to verify the accuracy of the imaged hard drive.
Electronically, every file is then given a unique identifying number.
The imaged hard drive is then examined for saved computer files that may relate to the case at hand.
In summary, Investigators must copy the data on a new blank hard drive, examine the data for deleted or "latent" files, ad examine the system files compiled by the computer operating system
most often photographs, documents, spreadsheets, and emails that have been saved by the user in various folders and directories.
physical files on the hard drive, but they are not logically available on the computer operating system
challenges of digital evidence
the digital evidence community does not have an agreed-upon certification program of list of qualifications for digital forensic examiners
Some agencies still treat the examination of digital evidence as an investigative rather than a forensic activity
there is wide variability in, and uncertainty about, the education, experience, and training of thoe practicing this discipline.