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Cheek side posterior



maxillary (maxilla)


mandibular (mandible)


teeth (the mouth in its entirety)

cheek side anterior


biting surface of teeth


tongue side bottom and usually top


tongue side occasionally upper


surface closest to the midline of mouth


surface furthest from the midline


tip of the root




film speed

the sensitivity of a film to radiation exposure

kilovoltage or kilovoltage peak (KVP)

the peak voltage used during the exposure (deal with wavelength, density, and color)

milliamperage (mA)

the intensity of the electrical current used during exposure (deal with time)


the restriction (piece inside machine) of the size and shape of the x-ray beam (creates the primary beam)


aluminum pieces in the machine used to absorb low-energy x-rays

film density

overall darkness or blackness of a radiograph

latent image

the invisible image on the film before processed

PID cone

circular part of x-ray machine, position indicating device

exposure time

effects the number of x-rays produced in a certain amount of time

inverse square law

the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation

paralleling techniques (XCP) dealing with PA's

film is placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth, the central ray is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and film holder

advantages of paralleling techniques

advantages-produces without dimensional distortion, easier to get the correct angle, able to recreate the exact angle again

bisecting techniques dealing with PA's

film is placed on an angle to bisect the long axis of the tooth, central ray is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and film holder

advantages of bisecting techniques

advantage-decreased exposure time, doesn't need to use film holder if patient's anatomy doesn't allow

disadvantages of paralleling techniques

disadvantages- film placement may cause patient discomfort

disadvantages of bisecting techniques

disadvantage-image distortion, difficult to get the proper angle, and unnecessary exposure

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