160 terms

AFAA Primary Group Exercise Certification Study Guide

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List 8 health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity.
Lower risk of coronary heart disease, lower risk of high blood pressure, lower risk of Type 2 diabetes, lower risk of breast cancer, reduced depression, improved cardiorespiraratory & muscular fitness, lower risk of colon cancer, prevention of weight gain.
How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
Maximizes aerobic power and minimizes boredom.
List 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvements occurs.
1. Increased maximal blood flow - Performing aerobic exercise forces large volumes of blood which increases stroke volume.
2. Increased oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal - The cardiorespiratory system saturates blood coming from the lungs with oxygen efficiently. The high pulmonary ventilation assists with the removal of carbon dioxide during exercise.
3. Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power - Regular aerobic exercise causes an increase in the number of capillaries per muscle fiber.
Energy Metabolism

Define energy and its food source.
Energy is the ability to do work and the source of energy is the sun.
Define ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate ATP.
Compound that releases energy necessary. for muscular contraction.
1 mole ATP = 1/10 mile energy walk.
Energy Pathways
Anaerobic and Aerobic.
An anaerobic pathway consists of:
ATP-CP - phosphagen system.
Fuel source = CHEMICAL creatine phosphate.

Intensity = very high.

Duration = very short 1 to15 seconds.

Activities = sprinting, jumping, throwing, kicking, lifting heavy weights.
An anaerobic pathway also consist of
LACTIC ACID SYSTEM

Fuel source = GLUCOSE carbohydrate only.


Intensity = high, moderate.

Duration = short, medium 45-90 seconds.

Activities = prolonged sprints, soccer, basketball, hockey, swimming, cycling.
aerobic pathway consists of:
AEROBIC SYSTEM

Fuel source = Carbohydrates, fat, protein.

Intensity = moderate, low.

Duration = medium, very long 3-5 minutes

Activities = sitting, reading, studying, watching TV, internet surfing, sleeping, walking, biking, rowing, skating, distance running, aerobics.
Define: Aerobic
Aerobic is with oxygen or the presence of oxygen.
Define: Anaerobic
Anaerobic is without oxygen; usually w/short-spurt, high-energy activities
What is the term for Steady state:
After first 3-4 minutes of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet oxygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardio output, and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly constant levels.
What is the term for Excess post-oxygen consumption EPOC
Oxygen debt referring to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during recovery.
What is the term for Oxygen deficit
Period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply ATP production.
What is the term for Anaerobic threshold
Point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated.
What is the term for Aerobic capacity
Ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardiorespiratory endurance.
What is the term for Lactic acid
By-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose; milk sugar.
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
Aerobic - Complete breakdown of glucose.
Anaerobic - Partial breakdown of glucose.

Aerobic - Can utilize carbs, fats, or proteins as fuel.
Anaerobic - Can only use carbs as fuel.

Aerobic - Long-duration of activity.
Anaerobic - Short-duration of activity.

Aerobic - Smaller EPOC.
Anaerobic - Greater EPOC.

Aerobic - Sub maximal, work moderate intensity.
Anaerobic - Maximal work,,high intensity.

Aerobic - Carbon dioxide and water are end products.
Anaerobic - Lactic acid is the by-product.

Aerobic - Uses oxygen in chemical breakdown.
Anaerobic - Doesn't need Oxigen in chemical breakdown.
What is the term for Stroke volume
Volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single systole.
What is the term for Cardiac output
Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
What is the term for Venous return
Pumping action of the muscles in extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen blood back to the heart.
What is the term for Blood pooling
Condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain.
What is the term for Vital capacity
Greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration.
What is the term for Valsalva maneuver
Dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds their breath forming an unequal pressure in the brain. Dizziness, temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
What are blood pressure norms for a healthy person?
Resting Blood Pressure for healthy person averages about 120 - 80.

High Blood Pressure is considered 140 - 90+
What is the anatomical term for Joint
The point at which two or more bones meet and movement occurs: synovial, non-synovial.
What is the anatomical term for Ligament
Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissues connecting bone-to-bone and reinforces joints from dislocation, non-elastic, limited ROM.
What is the anatomical term for Tendon
Band of dense fibrous tissues forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with minimum elasticity.
What is the anatomical term for Cartilage
White, semi-opague fiborous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces.
Describe the following anatomical terms.
Anterior . Front.
Posterior . Back of body.

Medial . Midline of body.
Lateral . Head to trunk.

Supine . Lying on back.
Prone . Lying on stomach.

Superior . Upper half of body.
Inferior . lower half of the body.

Unilateral . One side of body affected.
Bilateral . both sides equally affected.
Define the following joint actions:
Flexion.
Bending of a joint between two bones.

Extension.
Increasing the angle between two bones - straightening previously in flexion.

Abduction.
Movement AWAY from the midline of body.

Adduction.
Movement TOWARDS the middle of body.

Rotation.
Movement around the axis.

Circumduction.

Movement in which an extremity describes a 360 degree circle.
Agonist
Muscle that is a prime mover, directly responsible for a particular action.
Antagonist
Muscle that acts in opposition to the action.
Primary movers
Muscles that perform movement.
Assistors
Muscle that help perform the same task.
Stabilizers
Muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain posture or fixate a joint.
Define the following muscular contractions:
Isometric. Tension increases, but muscle length remains the same.

Concentric. Muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity.

Eccentric. Muscle fibers lengthen through range of motion.

Isotonic.
Tension remains constant as muscle shortens and lengthens.

Isokinetic.
Movements where muscles shorten at a constant rate. can't be done with or without specialized equipment.
Which 3 of the muscle contractions are used in a group exercise setting?
1. Concentric. shortening phase. at a joint.

2. Eccentric. lengthening phase. returning from shortening phase.

3. Isometric - static. held position.
Describe slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers.
Slow Twitch.
Type I fibers. Designed for prolonged submaximal aerobic activity.

Fast Twitch.
Type II fibers. Able to generate quick, high-intensity contractions.
List the musculoskeletal benefits of the following:
a. Weight-bearing activities
b. Increased muscular strength
c. Increased muscular flexibility
1. Weight-bearing activities.
Increase bone density.

2. Increased muscular strength.
Increase both physical appearance and physical performance.

3. Increased muscular flexibility - Improves tissues and helps facilitate movement
List 3 postural deviations of the back.
1. Scolious
2. Kyphosis
3. Lordosis
Define the stretch reflex, its purpose, and when it occurs.
Muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle maintains a constant length.
Explain why ballistic movements can be dangerous.
When ballistic movements are used, the muscle spindles sense the quick changes in muscle length and cause a muscular contraction.
List 6 classes of nutrients.
Water
Carbs
Protein
Fat
Vitamins
Minerals
List the different types of carbohydrates and give examples of each.
Simple - Sugars (table sugar, sucrose and sugar in milk and fruit

Complex - Glucose molecules linked together - polysaccharides . grains, legumes, veggies-potatoes.
What are vitamins?
Non-caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance, and repair.
Describe the difference between fat . soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
fat soluble vitamins stored in liver and can be toxic w/overdosing.
water soluble vitamins. Excreted by kidneys, not likely to be toxic.
Water are minerals?
Inorganic compounds that assist processed such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid-based balance and are structural components of body tissue.
List a minimum of 8 dietary guidelines for Americans outlined by the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
1. Consume variety of nutrient dense food/beverages among food groups, limit saturated fat/transfat, sugars, salts, and alcohol.
2. To prevent weight gain over time, make small decreases in calories and increase activity.
3. Engage in regular activity.
4. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day.
5. Consume 3 cups of fat free or lowfat milk products per day.
6. Achieve physical fitness w/cardio, stretching, resistance, calisthenics.
7. Consume 3+ oz whole grain products/day.
8. Consume less than 10% calories from sat. fatty acids and less that 300 mg per day of cholesterol, keep transfatty acid as low as possible
Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource.
Offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/access food choices based on dietary guidelines for Americans. It will help give participants a better understanding of what to eat and how much exercise is needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Review Appendix B: AFAA's Nutritional Supplement Policy and discuss what the role and responsibilities of a fitness professional are when it comes to the sale and distribution of nutritional supplements.
They can only be sold under MY name, where item is sold in good faith to only good candidates.
Explain the difference between an acute injury and a chronic injury.
Chronic . Most common, long-term

Acute . Sudden onset due to a specific trauma
List the part of the body in which each of the following chronic injuries occurs most often.
a) Plantar fasciitis . Inflammation of fascia/connective tissue in metatarsals. Most often occurs in arch of foot.
b) Chondromalacia . Overuse injury affecting articular cartilage of posterior surface, or patella. Most often occurs in the knee cap.
c) Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone. Most often occurs in achilles tendon.
What is the difference between a muscle strain and a muscle sprain?
Strain . Overstretching or tearing of muscle or tendon.

Sprain . Tearing or overstretching of ligament.
List 3 ways to prevent injuries to vocal nodules.
Use microphone.

Non verbal cueing . gestures.

Relaxation . keep head, neck, jaw tension-free.
Pitch. speak without effort.
Posture . speak while in position.
Projection . speak out not up or down.
Environment . music at a moderate volume.
List 3 ways to prevent low-back pain.
Proper position.
Exercise selection.
Attention to knees and spine.
List 3 ways to prevent shin splints.
Proper footwear.
Quality flooring.
Safe technique.
List 4 things that may contribute to heat injuries, cardiovascular conditions, or exercise induced conditions as they related to participants in physical activity.
Dehydration.
No warm up.
Inappropriate clothing.
Saunas . hot tub use after exercising
Family history.
Smoking.
Obesity.
No sunscreen.
What is the first aid action for musculoskeletal injury?
RICE = Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
List 4 steps in recognizing an emergency.
1. Survey.
2. Assessment.
3. Prioritization.
4. Implementation.
What are the FITT Principle Training Variables?
F = Frequency.
I = Intensity.
T = Time.
T = Type.
Will one FITT variable affect another? How?
Yes. A significant increase in intensity will likely result in decreased duration of that exercise session.
Describe Principle of Overload.
To achieve a desired training effect, body must be overloaded beyond its normal level or present capacities.
Describe Principle of Progression.
Exercise program should provide gradual increases or progressions in frequency/intensity/time/type.
Specificity of Training Principle SAID stands for what? Describe.
Specific
Adapt to
Imposed
Demands

Body will adapt to type of physiological stresses placed on it. In order to improve in certain areas, area must be rehearsed.
Describe Reversibility Principle.
If workload is decreased, detraining in performance will occur.
Describe Principle of Overtraining.
Body needs time to recover and muscloskeletal system needs time to rebuild without sufficient rest, overtraining occurs.
List the health-related components of physical fitness.
Cardiorespiratory fitness.
Muscular strength and endurance.
Flexibility.
Body composition.
List the skill related components of physical fitness.
Agility
Balance
Coordination
Power
Reaction time
Speed
Health Benefits vs. Enhanced Fitness Benefits
Outline the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans which reinforced the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health.
1. All adults should avoid inactivity - some is better than none.
2. Should perform 2 1/2 hrs per week moderate intensity aerobic or 1 hour, 15 minutes of vigorous intensity.
3. Adults should perform 300 minutes week 5 hours of moderated intensity aerobic activity OR 150 minutes per week of vigorous intensity aerobic activity for more extensive health benefits.
4. Adults should also perform moderate or high intensity muscle strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups on 2 or more days per week.
Which other organization's training recommendations does AFAA support?
American College of Sports Medicine ACSM
What does BMI stand for and what measurement constitutes an individual to be defined as obese?
BMI = Body Mass Index
greater that 30% is defined as obese this is about 32% of adults
List 7 professional responsibilities of an instructor.
Personal Liability Coverage.
Training and Certification.
CPR AED and First Aid Training.
Facility Pre Exercise Participation Screening.
Medical Clearance and Pre Exercise Testing.
Environmental Monitoring.
Emergency Response Plan.
Define Par Q.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
What are the medical clearance recommendations for High Risk participants?
Medical exam, medical clearance, and exercise testing before moderate to vigorous exercise.
Men and women, any age, with 1+ major cardio pulmonary . metabolic disease.
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Moderate Risk participants?
Medical exam or clearance before exercise.
Men and women, <2 atherosclerotic cardio disease, risk factors without symptoms.
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Low-Risk participants?
Most instances do not require clearance.
Men and women without symptoms and have less than 1 CVD risk factor.
List 10 exercise danger signs participants should STOP exercise and instructor should assess the need for emergency response procedures.
Nausea and or vomiting.
Dizziness unusual fatigue.
Tightness or pain in chest.
Loss of muscle control.
Severe breathlessness.
Allergic reaction.
Blurred vision.
Acute Illness.
Metal Confusion.
Cyanosis blush coloring of skin.
Acute musculoskeletal injury.
List 5 signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modification or cessation of exercise until signs disappear.
Labored breathing.
Excessive heart rate elevation.
Evidence of strain/holding breath or unusual redness.
Musculoskeletal pain.
Lack of proper control.
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and medications on exercise response?
Certain prescriptions non-prescribed medications may elicit side effects during exercise.
List 6 symptoms of overtraining.
Fatigue.
Anemia.
Amenorrhea.
Overuse or stress-related injuries.
Increased resting heart rate.
Slower recovery of heart rate.
Constant muscle or joint soreness, leaning toward pain.
Decrease in strength performance.
List 6 AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining.
Vary class type and intensity.
Limit number of high impact classes.
Perform warm up and cool down.
Limit amount of active demonstration.
Decrease schedule, when medical or burnout.
Nutritious diet.
In terms of hydration and rehydration, AFAA recommends what?
Participants should monitor hydration levels and consume 8 to 12 ounces of fluid before exercise.
Hydrate before, during, and after exercise.
Describe the appropriate exercise attire that AFAA recommends.
Fabrics that breathe.
Comfortable clothing that allows free movement.
Shoes with proper design, support, and cushioning.
According to AFAA, a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?
Intermediate with explanation and demonstration of modifications.
Instructors should evaluate an exercise from which two viewpoints?
Effectiveness . benefits and Potential Risk injury quotient.
AFAA 5 Questions - What are they?
1. What is the purpose of this exercise?
2. Are you doing that effectively?
3. Does the exercise create safety concerns?
4. Can you maintain proper alignment and form for the duration of the exercise?
5. For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
List 14 exercises that AFAA does not recommend for a group exercise class due to the high-risk potential. Review appropriate modifications for each page 33 in Study Guide.
1. Sustained unsupported forward spinal flexion.
2. Sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion.
3. Repetitive or weighted deep knee bends.
4. Bouncy . ballistic toe touches.
5. Rapid head circles.
6. Full plough.
7. Full cobra.
8. Hurdler's stretch.
9. Windmills.
10. Supine dbl straight leg lifts w/o spinal stabilization.
11. Prone combo dbl leg . double arm lifts.
12. Painful, forced splits.
13. Weight-bearing pivots on unforgiving surfaces.
14. Plyometric moves from an elevated surface.
List 10 basic postures in group exercise as well as 1 important alignment cue for each position.
1. Standing . Feet shoulder width apart.
2. Squat . Knees do not extend past toes.
3. Bent Over . Flex at the hips.
4. Seated . Spine in neutral position.
5. Supine . Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral.
6. Prone . Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral.
7. Side.Lying. Stack hips and shoulders w/sq. alignment.
8. Kneeling. Shoulders down, neck in neutral alignment.
9. Hand & Knee. Keep shoulders and hips squared.
10. Moving. Posture and alignment, control ROM
AFAA recommends that every group exercise class include what?
Pre class announcements
Warm up activity . Preparation period.
Body of workout. Cardiorespiratory. Muscular . Flexibility.
Cool down. Stretching and or Relaxation.
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper warm-up.
Definition = Preparation period for a specific workout.

Purpose = Increase core temperature and prepare muscles and joints for movement that follows.

Duration = Dependent on class, typically 8-12 mins.
List and describe 2 common warm-up methods and discuss when the addition of preparatory stretches may be appropriate.
1. Movement rehearsal . Performing lighter or less intense versions of movements that will be used in the workout to follow
2. Limbering movements . Smooth, moderately paced, non weighted, full range movements that will be used in workout core temp.
3. Preparartory stretching . Gentle stretches to ease muscles through ROM
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper cardio respiratory training.
Definition = Continuous and rhythmic aerobic activities that target large muscles of the body to create an increased demand for oxygen.

Purpose = Improve heart, circulatory, and pulmonary systems.

Duration = Depending on class format, typically 20 to 45 minutes.
List and describe 4 common cardiorespiratory training methods.
1. Continuous or Steady State . Intensity gradually increases, held at a steady state for majority of workout, then gradually decreases.
2. Interval . Timed bouts of higher intensity work followed by periods of lower intensity active recovery.
3. Intermittent . Less structured form of interval w/random interspersed peak movements followed by lower intensity movements.
4. Circuit . Bouts of activities exercises performed in a station to station or sequential manner.
List several special considerations for cardiorespiratory training.
Monitoring intensity.
Cross training.
Intensity issues.
Music speed.
Range of Motion.
Repetitive Stress Issues.
Cardio cool down.
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper muscular strength and endurance training.
Definition = Involves working individual or groups of muscles against resistance to fatigue.

Purpose = Ability to perform everyday activities, increased muscle mass, increase metabolism, stronger bones, decrease risk of injury, improved posture and symmetry, and improved athletic performance.

Duration = Typically 45 to 60 minutes.
List and describe 4 common muscular strength and endurance training methods.
1. Muscle Isolation . Prime Movement .
Used to a target specific muscle group by utilizing the primary movement . joint action . of that particular muscle. Biceps curls, calf raises, deltoid raises.
2. Multi Joint Multi-Muscle . Involves more than one joint and target several muscle groups in the same exercise. Example: Squat where joints used are hip, knee, ankle and muscles used quads, glutes, hamstrings.
3. Torso Stabilization . Enhances ability to maintain proper spinal alignment and posture. Abdominal and back muscles work together in a co contracting isometric manner.
4. Functional Training Exercises that replicate movements commonly used in activities of daily living.
List several special considerations for muscular strength and endurance training.
Muscle balance.
Range of motion.
Speed and control.
Intensity.
Torso stabilization exercises.
Resistance equipment techniques.
Muscle conditioning exercises in the water.
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper flexibility training.
Definition = Focuses on joint mobility and muscle suppleness, muscle flexibility, and the reduction of muscular tension.

Purpose = Improves joint mobility, decreases risk of injury, and enhances physical performance.

Duration = Varies 5 to 10 minutes to full 60 minutes stretch class.
List and describe 3 common flexibility training methods.
1. Static Stretches . Placing target muscles in elongated position and holding.
2. Dynamic Stretching . Full ROM Stretching with movement through full range of motion ROM.
3. PNF Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretches. Involve an active contraction of the muscle prior to the stretch.
List several special considerations for flexibility training.
Intensity.
Speed and control.
Range of motion.
Body temperature.
List the definition, purpose, and duration of final class segment.
Definition = Closure of a workout including stretching, relaxation, and stress reducing techniques.

Purpose = Promote mind-body awareness, facilitate relaxation where heart rate and blood pressure are decreased, muscles relax, and stress is reduced.

Duration = Typically 5-10 minutes.
List and describe 3 common relaxation methods.
1. Physical Focus: Uses on bodily systems and sensations as an effort to relax.
2. Mental Abstract Focus: Uses imagination to increase relaxation.
3. Combination Focus: Combines physical and mental focuses for greater relaxation.
List several special considerations for a final class segment.
Heart rate monitoring.
Saunas and hot tubs.
Method selection . be sensitive to wording non spiritual.
Explain resting heart rate RHR.
The number of heart beats per minute while in resting state.
How does increased cardiorespiratory fitness affect resting heart rate?
Decreases RHR.
What is the calculation for determining age predicted maximal heart rate MHR or HR max?
220 minus age = bpm
How do THRR and HRR differ?
THRR = Maximum heart rate
HRR - Factors in resting heart rate from rest to maximum
Explain recovery heart rate.
Reflects the speed at which heart rate returns to pre exercise level and is an indicator of sufficient cool down period.
The preferred anatomical site for pulse checking are:
Primary pulse checking is Radial
Secondary pulse checking is Carotid
The AFAA-recommended counting time for heart rate is:
10 seconds.
Once cued to begin, start counting beats with the number:
1
Note: Multiply by 6 to determine exercise working heart rate.
Describe the additional methods for monitoring intensity during exercise.
a. Rating of perceived exertion RPE
hard an individual is working on a scale of 1 to 10 respective values 4 to 6 and 7 to 8

b. Talk test: Engaging in a conversation during exercise represents working at or near a steady state.
List 4 ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio aerobic workout.
1. Offer varied intensity options so participants can choose which level is best for them.
2. Break movements into "bite.size" pieces and build up.
3. Participants should leave feeling "successful."
4. Alternate higher intensity moves with lower intensity moves.
How would you define the word "rhythm"?
The beat and feel of the music.
Explain what is meant by a musical phrase.
Music phrases are linked together to create musical sections. Musical phrase consists of 32 beats and keeps movements corresponding.
What are the legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise?
Approved by performing rights and music companies.
List aerobic choreography examples for the following:
1. (LIA)
2. Moderate-Impact Aerobics (MIA)
3. (HIA
1. LIA Low-Impact Aerobics . March, Step Touch, Squat . Plie, Grapevine
2. MIA Moderate-Impact Aerobics Skip, Twist, Plie/Releve, Knee Lifts w/Heel Lift
3. HIA High-Impact Aerobics Jog, Jump, Hop, Jack
Define LIA, MIA, and HIA, and explain how they differ from one another.
LIA: Low-Impact - Keep one foot on/close to floor
MIA: Moderate Impact . Both feet on floor, feet roll w/toe ball heel action
HIA: High Impact . Both feet leaving the floor at the same time/alternating
To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A participants, list 3 types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training.
1. Alternating low impact and high impact workouts reduces accumulative trauma and opportunity to develop overuse injuries.
2. Variety of workouts provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high intensity options. Examples: step training, kickboxing, cycling.
3. Strength training is critical for lowering injury risk from high-impact exercise.
List 4 motivational techniques to sustain a Type B participant for lifelong exercise adherence.
Feedback
Support
Recognition
Encouragement
List a minimum of 8 action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice participant.
Footwork
Directional
Rhythmic
Numerical
Functionality
Step
Alignment
Verbal/Non-Verbal
Visual Conspicuous
Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance the cardiovascular system, and prevent injuries.
Cost of energy is higher causing positive training results for cardio and weight management without fear or rough impact.
What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design?
Similar . Should understand objective and allow progression.
State the difference between circuit and interval training methods.
Circuit . Cardio and strengthening in short timeframe . quick.

Interval . Strengthening and endurance, 3 energy systems.
List and summarize 2 circuit training formats.
Super Circuit . Quick, intense cardio weight setup for flow.

Peripheral Heart Action - Divided into several sequences, each targeting different muscle groups.
When instructing interval training, what does it mean by:
a) Work active recovery ratio is how much time is spent pushing hard then how much time recovering before repeating.
b) Work to recovery ratio is 1:1 = same amount of time spent pushing hard as recovering.
List a minimum of 4 things one should do to ensure they are riding properly.
Hands remain light on handlebars.
Too much gripping/body weight will tire upper body.
Ability to control speed.
Ability to control resistance.
List a minimum of 3 things an instructor should consider when designing an indoor cycling class.
Teaching off the bike.
Counting.
Sharpening focus.
Positive affirmations.
Goal setting.
What number of repetitions is recommended by AFAA for group exercise:
A range between 8 to 12 repetitions on whether the focus is muscular strength or endurance.
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing groups.
Abdominals
Rear Deltoid
Mid-Trapezius and Rhomboids
Lower Trapezius
External Shoulder Rotators
Spinal Erectors
Vastus Medias
Tibilis Anterior
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be tight.
Front Deltoid
Pectorials
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Internal Shoulder
Upper Trapezius
Spinal Erectors
Illiopsoas
Discuss "constant versus variable" resistance and what form of equipment, used in a group exercise class would resemble variable resistance.
Constant resistance is a form of dynamic resistance targeting a muscle or muscle group using free weights.

Variable resistance is designed to achieve maximum muscle involvement and is usually carried out with specialized machines.
List 7 "Action Steps for Designing a Resistance Tubing Class."
1. Check tubing condition
2. Avoid pulling tubing toward face
3. Select appropriate resistance
4. Avoid gripping handles too tightly
5. Maintain wrist alignment
6. Maintain continuous tension
7. Maintain smooth and controlled pace
List a minimum of 4 strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting.
1. Moving from one primary muscle group to the next (traditional weight room format).
2. Moving from single set of one exercise directly into a second, third, or more and then repeating the entire series over again (super-, tri-, or giant-sets).
3. Moving through a series of exercise patterns including arm combinations, leg combinations, or arm & leg combinations (more choreographed format).
List 7 principles of Mat Science.
Balance
Extension
Alignment
Range of Motion
Progression
Flow
Breath
List a minimum of 4 class format guidelines.
1. Always begin with initial warm-up and breathing.
2. Move fluidly and mindfully with each exercise.
3. Develop appropriate levels of intensity of progression for each movement.
4. Always finish class with a cool down to relax and restore.
What are the guidelines for various step levels?
Level 1: 4" Non-Participant
Level 2: 4-6" New to Step Training Participant
Level 3: 4-8" Regular Stepper
Level 4: 4-10" Highly Skilled Regular Stepper
List the appropriate beats per minute (bpm) for:
a) Warm-up = 120- 134 bpm
b) Cardiorespiratory training = 118 -128 bpm / 128 -135 bpm for advanced class
c) Muscular strength and endurance training = 120 - 130 bpm
List a minimum of 3 proper body alignment techniques.
Shoulders back and relaxed
Chest lifted and body erect
Ab muscles contracted
Neutral spine
Knees relaxed
Avoid hyperextension of joints
Avoid twisting of joints
List a minimum of 3 proper stepping techniques.
Full body lean . do not bend at waist
Focus on feet first . add arm movements when proficient.
Watch platform periodically.
Knee flexion less than 90 degrees
Step in center.
Don't step w/back to platform.
Step lightly.
Allow whole foot to contact floor.
Use proper lifting techniques.
How can one prevent knee injury while stepping?
Keep ROM limited to no more than 90 degree angle when weight bearing.
Pivoting movement should only be performed when leg is not weight bearing or unloaded.
What does EIA stand for and how can it be prevented?
Exercise Induced Asthma.
Consult a physician for treatment/prevention.
. Have inhaler available at all times
. Exercise intensity should start low to high
. Avoid outside (cold/high pollen) exercise in areas with high humidity
. Breathe through nose
List at least 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease.
1. Participant should be screened.
2. Comply with target heart rate and RPE guidelines.
3. Alert instructor with signs or symptoms.
4. Don't exceed level of expertise.
5. Intensity should start low and work higher.
6. Guidelines from physician should be followed.
List at least 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis.
1. Low impact exercise should be encouraged.
2. Frequent low intensity exercise should be performed.
3. Isometric exercises may be preferred.
4. Extended warm-up and cool down
5. If pain lasts 2 hrs. after exercise, decrease intensity.
5. Obesity / overweight are risk factors.
List at least 4 precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class.
1. Blood glucose should be monitored.
2. Insulin should be injected into muscle not being used.
3. Exercise should be avoided during peak insulin production.
4. Always carry a carb snack.
5. Type I should exercise at the same time every day.
List 8 exercise guidelines for a participant with hypertension.
1. Emphasize cardio activity.
2. Exercise daily for 30 to 60 minutes.
3. High intensity isometric activities should be avoided.
4. Reps high, weight low for resistance training.
5. Avoid valvsalva maneuver.
6. Utilize RPE - meds may alter heart rate.
7. Avoid positions with feet higher than head.
8. Teach relaxation and stress management techniques.
No one rule necessarily applies to all large sized adults in terms of exercise precautions because:
It is possible that a large person is actually heavy and healthy or "fat and fit".
What is the preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range?
Cardio a low to moderate pace
Rating of Perceived Exertion of 1 to 10 is preferred.
5 to 6 is target, noticeable increases in heart rate and breathing.
What method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoporosis?
Slow stretching.
Isometric exercises.
List the 2 methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults.
Static.
Slow Dynamic.
List at least 4 program design guidelines for the older adult.
1. Participants should know how to monitor workload.
2. Be alert to over exertion.
3. Monitor intensity every 4-5 mins.
4. Slow controlled movement with full ROM recommended.
List at least 3 exercise considerations during pregnancy.
1. Cardio changes . Blood volumes increase, causing increased demands.
2. Hormonal. anatomical. Special attention to stretching and strengthening.
3. Pelvic floor muscles . Maintaining is essential.
List 5 things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with a pregnant person.
1. Goal is renewed energy.
2. Slow down it's only 9 months.
3. Signs of overexertion.
4. Monitor for signs of modification.
5. Uncertain/adverse reactions should be referred to Doctor.
Discuss at least 3 exercise modalities that pregnant women can perform along with any risks and modifications that should be taken.
1. High impact to low impact.
2. Modify tough movements.
3. No supine weight work after 20 weeks roll on side.
List a minimum of 4 exercise recommendations outlined by the USDHHS and ACSM.
1. Participate in 60 mins. or more of physical activity 3 to 4 days per week.
2. Moderate intensity increasing breathing, heart rate, and sweat.
3. Encourage sustained activities that use large muscle groups.
4. Heart rate monitoring may be optional due to low risk.
List a minimum of 3 general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents.
Resistance training movements.
Free weight training.
Manual resistance training.
Isometric training.
Weight training machines.
List a minimum of 3 "special considerations" regarding resistance training in children and adolescents.
1. Activity should be appropriate and varied.
2. Training should be comprehensive to increase motor skills level.
3. Only when using good form, should resistance weights be added.
4. Focus should be on participation and technique, not weight.
Discuss at least 4 ways to ensure a successful substitute teaching experience.
1. Having consistent policies in place.
2. Evaluating the situation.
3. Developing self-confidence.
4. Making the right connection.
List 7 services group exercise instructors should deliver in order to adhere to the "standard of care" outlined by the fitness industry.
1. Screening.
2. Recommendation of Activities.
3. Recordation of Activities.
4. Record keeping.
5. Leadership.
6. Supervision.
7. Emergency Response Concerns.