50 terms

Anthropology

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egalitarian societies
there are no differences in wealth or prestige between adults of the same sex
Big Man
individuals who are set apart from the rest of the group in terms of higher social status and who takes a prominent role in making decisions for the group; political leaders in some local group societies
ranked societies
societies in which there are differences of prestige and wealth, but where all people have access to the basic resources that permit survival
achieved; ascribed
the Big Man's position is ____________________ not
______________________ .
Rubbish Men
what Melanesians call ordinary men without such ambitions or wealth (slackers)
polygynous
have more than one wife because this increases the amount of labor in their households
pigs
an extremely important source of wealth in New Guinea
redistribution
A pooling of surplus goods by a central authority, who then distributes them to all the members of a society
reciprocity
e exchange of items or labor between individuals, usually without specifying the value of what is exchanged or the time of repayment
potlatch
Kwakiutl's distinctive form of redistributive exchange
stratification
unequal access to the basic resources that permit survival
false
True or False: Big Man can deny people access to the resources they require for survival
tribute
an obligatory payment of labor or produce to those who control society's basic resources.
power
a ruling group or individual can deny everyone else access to basic resources unless their terms are met
chiefdoms
a society organized on a regional level, integrating a number of local communities under the rule of an aristocratic leader
ascribed
inherited
ascribed
chief leadership position is __________
intensive agriculture
land is kept in continuous cultivation year after year
endogamous castes
basic divisions corresponding to "aristocrats" and "commoners"
true
geographic scale and population of chiefdoms are greater than any society we have discussed so far
caste
ranked social group into which you are born and in which your membership is unchangeable and life-long
tabu
declared the chief "off-limits" to commoners
mana
a force so powerful that it could be dangerous for commoners who approached too closely
sumptuary rules
elaborate rules of etiquette, or certain styles of dress, ornamentation, or symbols of office, reserved for the chief
expansion
chiefs attempt to incorporate new territory and people into their society
intensification
chiefs promote increased levels of agricultural production, often by instituting irrigation systems and terracing
state
A large-scale stratified society in which power is exercised through a bureaucracy.
scale and population
major differences between chiefdoms and states
state
world's first multi-ethnic society
management and control
fundamental problem of state that chiefdoms do not have
supernatural terrorism
Aztec people enforced human sacrifice because of there belief that gods would end the world
Inca
world's first social welfare state
bureaucracy
specialists responsible for enforcing the decisions of the state's leaders
record keepers and administrators
work as clerks and statisticians to keep track of the amount of tribute paid to the state, and who coordinate this income with the requirements of the leaders and various branches of bureaucracy
the bureaucracy's need to record tributes
the first writing systems come into existence with the development of states because of this
quipu
imaginative system of knotted cords to record the volumes of various items collected by the state as tribute
judicial institutions
a monopoly on the use of force
coercive
to force people to comply with its decisions and with its demands of tribute
full-time military
defend the state's borders against neighboring, expansionary states; reinforce the rule of the state and its claim to all of the vital resources of a society. Ultimately the state's rule is backed up by use or threat of force
legitimacy
moral right to rule
urbanism
life in cities
peasants
subsistence-oriented farmers in state societies who support other groups of people by producing an agricultural surplus
peasants
he single largest category of people living today
patron saints
Latin American peasant communities' benefactors, usually be identified by name with one or more Catholic saints
the cargo or fiesta system
local ceremonial life involves organizing celebrations on behalf of these saints over a week or so leading up to their feast day are known as
cargo
Spanish for "burden" or obligation
fiestas
large-scale community-wide undertakings that involve both solemn religious events and festivities involving a great deal of feasting, dancing, fireworks, drinking and other forms of public celebration
closed corporate community
membership in the _______________________requires participation in local religious rituals, based on the "cargo" or "fiesta" system
Image of Limited Good
the belief that all desirable things in life -- whether wealth, land, happiness or health -- exist in limited and unchanging amounts
1. members are indistinguishable from other communities and the national culture
2. membership is open to outsiders
3. land is privately owned, and can be bought and sold as a commodity
4. the cargo system of obligatory ritual expenses no longer exists, or is greatly reduced in scale
5. there is much production of crops for agricultural markets, particularly in foreign countries
open peasant communities