98 terms

EOES Flashcards - Ch. 1 Human Anatomy (start with definition side)

Start with definition side
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Toward the front; think ventilate/breathe
Anterior (Ventral)
Toward the back; think dorsal fin
Posterior (Dorsal)
Toward the head; think higher than
Superior
Away from the head; think lower than
Inferior
Toward the midline of the body; think middle
Medial
Away from the midline of the body; think latitude lines
Lateral
Toward the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure or midline of the body; think _________________
Proximal
Away from the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure or midline of the body; think distance
Distal
Longitudinal (top to bottom) line that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sections; think biceps curl
Sagittal (vertical) plane
Longitudinal (top to bottom) line that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts; lies at a right angle to the sagittal plane: think shoulder abduction
Frontal (vertical) plane
Latitudinal (side to side) line that divides the body or any of its parts into superior (higher) and inferior (lower) parts; think trunk rotation
Transverse (horizontal) plane
Blood leaves heart (oxygen rich) through arteries, then arterioles, then capillaries, then venules (oxygen poor/back to heart), then veins, then inferior and superior vena cava
Route of blood flow to body (systemic circuit)
Blood leaves right ventricle through pulmonary arteries, picks up oxygen/drops off carbon dioxide, enters left atrium through pulmonary veins
Route of blood flow to lungs (pulmonary circuit)
Form follows function; changes in bone structure coincide with changes in bone function; think stressful forces on skeleton from exercise then more bone tissue - less force due to bed rest means mineral loss and less dense bones
Wolff's Law
Mediolateral axis. Vertebral column
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Shoulder joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Elbow joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Wrist joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Knee joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Hip joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Extension
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Flexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Mediolateral axis. Ankle joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Dorsiflexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Plantarflexion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Anteroposterior axis. Subtalar or Ankle joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Eversion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Inversion
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Anteroposterior axis. Shoulder joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Abduction
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Adduction
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Lateral flexion - Right
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Lateral flexion - Left
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Anteroposterior axis. Vertebral column
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Anteroposterior axis. Hip Joint
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #1
Abduction
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #2
Adduction
Label the segmental movement and axis around which the movements take place #3
Flexion
Decreasing the angle between two bones in the sagittal plane is what type of movement?
Plantarflexion
Pointing the toes in the sagittal plane is what type of movement?
Elevation
Moving the scapulae to a superior position in the frontal plane is what type of movement?
Eversion
Lifting the lateral border of the foot in the frontal plane is what type of movement?
Supination
Rotating the hand and wrist laterally from the elbow in the traverse plane is what type of movement?
Circumduction
Multiplanar combination of flexion, externsion, abduction and adduction in sequence is what type of movement?
Automatic reflex relaxation caused by stimulation of a Golgi tendon organ (GTO). After 7-10 seconds of low force stretch allows for further muscle stretching
Define autogenic inhibition and its benefit during a stretching routine
Reflex inhibition of motor neuron of antagonists when agonists are contracted. Low-grade antagonist muscle contractions can reduce tonicity against the agonist muscle allowing that muscle to be more easily stretched
Define reciprocal inhibition and its benefit during a stretching routine
Type I - low
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - hig
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to speed of contraction
Type I - low
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - high
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to force capacity
Type I - high
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - low
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to fatigue resistance
Type I - highlow
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx -
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to mitochondrial content
Type I - low
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - high
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to size
Type I - high
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - low
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to efficiency
Type I - high
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - low
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to aerobic capacity
Type I - low
Type IIa - medium
Type IIx - high
Compare and contrast the three (3) muscle-fiber types as high and low relative to anaerobic capacity
1. Upper trapezius
2. Middle trapezius
3. Lower trapezius
Exercises: upright rows & shoulder shrugs
Add the missing labels to the figure.
List two (2) exercises that will effectively target all three (3) muscles.
1. Serratus anterior
Functions: Stabilization, abduction, and upward motion of the scapula
Exercises: Push-ups, incline bench press, and pull-overs
Add the missing label to this figure and list this muscle's primary function.
List three (3) exercises that effectively target this muscle.
1. Supscapularis
2. Supraspinatus
3. Infraspinatus
4. Teres minor
Common name: Rotator cuff (SITS)
Movements: Tennis serve, throwing a baseball
Add the missing labels to this figure.
What is the common name for this group of muscles?
Name two (2) common sport-related movements that involve this muscle group.
Pectoralis major
Deltiod
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
A client is performing the following exercises as part of their upper body workout. What muscles that act at the shoulder are effectively targeted by exercises in the following workout
Push-ups
Incline bench press
Bench press
Chin-ups
Seated rows
Lat pull-downs
Rope climbing
1. Biceps brachii
2. Brachialis
3. Brachioradialis
Pure flexor: Brachialis
Exercises: Arm curls, chin-ups, upright rowing
Add the missing labels to this figure.
Which is the only pure flexor of the elbow?
List three (3) exercises that effectively target this and other elbow flexion muscles.
1. Medial epicondyle of the humerus
2. Palmaris longus
3. Flexor carpi radialis
4. Flexor carpi ulnaris
Exercises: Wrist curls, racquet sports grip strengthening exercises
Add labels to this anterior view of wrist flexion muscles and common origin figure.
List two (2) exercise types that effectively target these muscles.
Flexion and lateral flexion of the trunk
Rectus abdominis primary function
Contralateral (opposite side) rotation, lateral flexion, and forward flexion (both sides)
External oblique primary function
Ipsilateral (same side) rotation, lateral flexion, and forward flexion (both sides)
Internal oblique primary function
Compresses abdomen
Transverse abdominis primary function
Extension (both sides) and lateral flexion
Erector spinae primary function
Contributes to spinal stability druing trunk extension, rotation, and side-bending
Multifidi primary function
1. Longissimus
2. Spinalis
3. Iliocostalis
Exercises: Squat, dead lift, prone back extension exercises
Label the three (3) erector spinae muscles.
List three (3) exercises that effectively target this muscle group.
1. Pectineus
2. Adductor brevis
3. Adductor longus
4. Gracilis
5. Adductor magnus
Exercises: Hanging knee raises, side-lying bottom-leg raises, resisted external rotation of the thigh, resisted adduction
Label the five (5) hip medial muscles responsible for adduction.
List several exercises that effectively target this muscle group
1. Rectus femoris
2. Vastus lateralis
3. Vastus intermedius
4. Vastus medialis
Rectus femoris - flexion at the hip & extension at the knee
Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, and Vastus medialis knee only
Label the four (4) quadriceps muscles.
Which act at both the hip and the knee?
What action is produced at the hip?
What action is produced at the knee?
1. Semitendinosus
2. Semimembranosus
3. Biceps femoris
Primary function at hip joint: Extension, abduction, and slight external rotation
Exercises: Cycling, hamstring curls with knee in external rotation
Label the three (3) hamstring muscles (one has long AND short head)
What are their primary functions at the hip joint?
What exercises effectively target these muscles?
1. Gastrocnemius
2. Soleus
3. Achilles tendon
Primary functions: Platarflexion at ankle (both) and flexion at knee (gastrocnemius ONLY)
Exercises: Hill running, jumping rope, calf raises, cycling, stari climbing, bent-knee toe raises with resistance
Label the two (2) muscles that make up the bulk of the calf.
Label the common insertion point.
What are their primary functions of each?
What exercises effectively target these muscles?
1. Extensor digitorum longus
2. Extensor halluces longus
3. Anterior tibialis
Prime movers for dorsiflexion and inversion
Label the three (3) muscles of the anterior tibial compartment.
For what movements at foot and ankle are these prime movers?
Arthro
Joint
bi
two
brachium
arm
cardio
heart
cephalo
head
chondro
cartilage
costo
rib
dermo
skin
hemo
blood
hemat
blood
ilio
ilium
myo
muscle
os
bone
osteo
bone
pulmo
lung
thoraco
chest
tri
three
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