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An aircraft is a device that is used for, or is intended to be used for, flight in the air. Major categories of aircraft are
airplane, rotorcraft, glider, and lighter-than-air vehicles.
The airframe of a fixed-wing aircraft consists of five principal units:
the fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control surfaces, and landing gear.
The main structural member in a wing is called the
Aircraft structural members are designed to carry
a load or to resist stress.
There are five major stresses to which all aircraft are subjected:
is the stress that resists a force that tends to pull
is the stress that resists a crushing force.
is the stress that produces twisting.
is the stress that resists the force tending to cause
one layer of a material to slide over an adjacent layer.
stress is a combination of compression and tension.
is the main structure or body of the fixed-wing
There are two general types of fuselage construction:
truss and monocoque
fuselage is generally covered with fabric
The monocoque (single shell) fuselage relies largely on the strength of the skin or covering to carry the primary loads. The design may be divided into two classes:
Monocoque and Semimonocoque
They are typically made of aluminum alloy
either of a single piece or a built-up construction.
The semimonocoque fuselage is constructed primarily of alloys of____although steel and
titanium are sometimes found in areas of high temperatures.
aluminum and magnesium
Many aircraft are pressurized. This means that air is____after takeoff and a difference in pressure
between the air inside the cabin and the air outside the cabin is established.
pumped into the cabin
causes significant stress on the fuselage structure and adds to the complexity of design.
In addition to withstanding the difference in pressure between the air inside and outside the cabin, cycling from unpressurized to
pressurized and back again each flight causes
Repeated weakness or failure in an area of structure
may require that section of the fuselage be
modified or redesigned
are airfoils that, when moved rapidly through the air create lift
Often wings are of____ . This means they are built so that no external bracing is needed
full cantilever design
is the most common material from which
to construct wings, but they can be wood covered with fabric, and occasionally a magnesium alloy has been used.
Wings made entirely of____as well as wings made of a combination of materials for maximum strength to weight performance.
carbon fiber or other composite materials exist
are the structural crosspieces that combine with spars and stringers to make up the framework of the wing.
The three most common types of wooden ribs are
the plywood web, the lightened plywood web, and the truss types
For example, ribs that are located entirely forward of the front spar that are used to shape and strengthen the wing leading edge are called
nose ribs or false ribs
Since the ribs are laterally weak, they are strengthened in some wings by tapes that are woven above and below rib sections to prevent
sidewise bending of the ribs
At the inboard end of the wing spars is some form of wing attach fitting. These provide a strong and secure method for
attaching the wing to the fuselage.
is often a removable unit, bolted to the outboard
end of the wing panel. One reason for this is the vulnerability of the ___ to damage, especially during ground handling and taxiing.
The wing tip
is designed to carry part of the flight and ground loads in combination with the spars and
ribs. This is known as a stressed-skin design.
The skin on a wing
Fuel is often carried inside the wings of a
The joints in the wing can be sealed with a special
fuel resistant sealant enabling fuel to be stored directly inside the structure. This is known as
Wet wing design.
Alternately, a fuel-carrying___can be fitted inside a wing.
bladder or tank
are streamlined enclosures used primarily to house the engine and its components.
Nacelles (sometimes called pods)
is incorporated to isolate the engine
compartment from the rest of the aircraft.
are moveable parts of the nacelle cowling that open and close to regulate engine temperature.
of an aircraft is also known as the tail section.
Flight Control Surfaces are usually divided
into two major groups:
primary or main flight control surfaces and secondary or auxiliary control surfaces.
The primary flight control surfaces on a fixed-wing aircraft include:
ailerons, elevators, and the rudder.
are attached to the trailing edge of both wings and when moved, rotate the aircraft around the longitudinal axis.
is attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer.
is hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer.
perform the combined functions of the ailerons and the elevator.
is a control surface that combines the action of both the horizontal stabilizer and the elevator.
are found on most aircraft. They are usually inboard on the wings' trailing edges adjacent to the fuselage.
The amount that the flaps extend and the angle
they form with the wing can be selected from the cockpit. Typically, flaps can extend up to
is a device found on the upper surface of many
heavy and high-performance aircraft. It is stowed flush to the wing's upper surface. When deployed, it raises up into the airstream and disrupts the laminar airflow of the wing, thus reducing lift.
are small airfoil sections usually attached
to the upper surface of a wing.
There are two basic configurations of airplane landing gear:
conventional gear or tail wheel gear and the tricycle gear.
The nose of the aircraft may be designated____and all other stations are located at measured distances in inches behind the____.
The two most common types of engine used in helicopters are
the reciprocating engine and the turbine engine.
The gas turbine engine mounted on most Helicopters is made up of
a compressor, combustion chamber, turbine,
and accessory gearbox assembly.
exhaust gas temperature
turbine outlet temperature
The transmission system transfers power from the engine
to the main rotor, tail rotor, and other accessories during normal flight conditions.
The main components of the transmission system are
the main rotor transmission, tail rotor drive
system, clutch, and freewheeling unit.
allows the main rotor transmission to
drive the tail rotor drive shaft during autorotation.
The freewheeling unit, or autorotative clutch
Main rotor systems three basic classifications:
rigid, semi-rigid, or fully articulated.
Fully articulated rotor blade systems provide hinges that allow the rotors to move
fore and aft, as well as up and down.
helicopters have between____main rotor blades.
two and seven
is an acronym that stands for "no tail rotor."
operated by the pilot with the
left hand, is pulled up or pushed down to increase or decrease the angle of attack on all of the rotor blades simultaneously.
is the control "stick" located between the pilot's legs.
It can be moved in any direction to tilt the plane of rotation of the rotor blades. This causes the helicopter to move
in the direction that the cyclic is moved.
the foot pedals control___of the tail rotor blades thereby balancing main rotor torque.
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