Psych: Chapter 10-Personality


Terms in this set (...)

a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
psychodynamic perspective
emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious, those enduring patterns that make up personality are largely unavailable to our conscious awareness and they powerfully shape our behaviors in ways we can not consciously comprehend , aspects of our personality are unconscious because they must be, believe behavior is only a surface characteristic and we have to explore the symbolic meanings of that behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind, stress the role of early childhood
The sexual drive was the most important motivator of all human activity. He defined sex as anything that provided organ pleasure. Freud thought that the human sexual drive was the main determinant of personality development, and he felt that psychological disorders, dreams, and all human behavior represent the conflict between this unconscious sexual drive and the demands of society.
iceberg analogy
Freud describe personality as an iceberg existing mostly below the level of awareness. The three parts of the iceberg reflect the three structures of personality that Freud described and called them the id the ego and the super ego.
consists of the unconscious drives and is the individuals's reservoir of sexual energy, hs no contact with reality and works according to the pleasure principle.
the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality, abides by the reality principle. Ego is partly concious and sees how far we can go without getting in trouble and hurting ourselves. Houses higher mental functions reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.
the harsh internal judge of our behavior, reflected in what is called the conscience and evaluate the morality of our behavior, does not consider reality only considers whether the id's impulses impulses can be satisfied in acceptable moral terms.
defense mechanisms
Tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. When used in moderation or temporarily they are not unhealthy.
defense mechanisms example
he most primitive defense mechanism and the ego refuses to acknowledge the anxiety producing realities
means directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target
a form of displacement in which the person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valued way (boxer)
the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism, pushes unacceptable id impulses back into the unconscious mind, the foundation for all psychological defense mechanisms.
reaction formation
a defense mechanism in which a person's conscious experience is the exact opposite of his or her unconscious feelings
psychosexual stages
oral, anal, and phallic, latency, and genital
oral stage
first to 18 months, the infant's pleasure centers on the mouth, chewing, sucking, and biting are the cheif soruces of pleasure that reduce tension in the infanct
anal stage
18-38 months, during the time when most kids are potty trained the child greatest pleasure involves the anus and urethra and their functions, theres pleasure in going and holding it as well as control over one's parents
phallic stage
(3 to 6 years) the name of the third stage and it means penis, pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers self stimulation is enjoyable, triggers the oedipus complex which is the boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother, castration anxiety causes boys to identify with their father, Freud thinks girls have penis envy
Oedipus complex
the boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother
latency period
6 years to puberty, a kind of psychic time out, after the phallic stage the child sets aside all interest in sexuality, now we consider these years extremely important to development, Freud felt that this was a time in which no psychosexual development occurred
genital stage
adolescence to adulthoood, th time of seual reawakening, a point whne the source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the family, Freud believed that in adulthood the individual becomes capable of the two hall markers of maturity: love and work
Electra complex
strengths and criticisms of Freud's theory
His critics have said that his ideas about sexuality, early experience , social factors, and the unconscious mind were misguided. Sexuality is not the pervasive force behind personality that he believed, the first five years of life are not as powerful in shaping adult personality as Freud thought, later experiences deserve more attention, the ego and conscious thought processes play a more dominant role in our personality than Freud believed ,............................
Horney's sociocultural approach
Rejected the classical psychoanalytic concept that anatomy is destiny and cautioned that some of Freud's most popular ideas were only hypotheses, she insisted that these hypotheses be supported with observable data before being accepted as fact, she also argued that sociocultural influences on personality development should be considered. Believed that the need for security is the prime motive in human existence.
Shared Freud's interest in the unconscious and believed that Freud under played the unconscious mind's role in personality, he believed that the roots of personality go back to the daw of human existence. In his analytical theory the experiences of a common past have made a deep permanent impression on the human mind. He posited that the collective unconscious contains archetypes emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people. Archetypes are essentially predispositions to respond to the environment in particular ways.
collective unconscious
Jung's name for the impersonal deepest layer of the unconscious mind shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.
Adler's individual psychology
-One of Freud's earliest followers.
-in his individual psychology people are motivated by purposes and goals thus perfection is their key motivator
-argued that people have the ability to take their genetic inheritance and their environmental experiences and act upon them creatively to become the person they want to be
-thought that everyone strives for superiority by seeking to adapt improve and master the environment, striving for superiority is our response to the uncomfortable feelings of inferiority that we experience as infants and young children when we interact with bigger more powerful people
Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
Humanistuc perspective
stress a person's capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities. Humanistic psychologists believed that we all have the ability to control our lives and to achieve what we desire. Their persepctives contrast with both psychodynamic perspectives and behaviorism, sought to move beyond Freudians psychoanalysis nd behaviorism to a theory that might capture the rich and potentially positive aspects of human nature,. Leading architect of the movement is Maslow.
the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being. A person at this optimal level of existence would be tolerant of others, have a gentle sense of humor, and be likely to pursue the greater good.
Another key figure in the development of humanistic psychology, began his career as a psychotherapist struggling to understand the unhappiness of the individuals he encountered in therapy.Believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life we simply need the right conditions to thrive. All humans will flourish in the appropriate environment.
Unconditional positive regard
Roger's term or being accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of one's behavior
conditions of worth
the standards we must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others.
trait theory the big five
There are essentially five broad personality dimensions that are represented in natural language. The broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality are nueroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
personological approach
the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story, aspects that distinguish the individual from everyone else
social cognitive perspective
States that behavior environment and person/cognitive factors are all important in understanding personality. Emphasizes the reciprocal influences of behavior, environment, and person.cognitive factor
self efficacy
The belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task. Is related to a number of positive developments in people's lives including solving problems, becoming more spcialble, initating and maintaing a diet or an exercise program, and quitting smoking.
Mischel's critique
The critique of the idea of consistency in behavior, he concluded that there was no evidence for cross situational consistency in behavior and no evidence for the existence of personality as it had been previously assumed to exist.
a self re[prt test geared to assessing the five factor model: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and nueroticism/ Also evaluates six subdimensions that make up the five main factors.
MBTI-evidence for if they work
Projective tests (Rorschach inckblots;TATs) evidence if they work