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G. Stanley Hall

Transition from bestiality to humanity

Margaret Mead

said: many cultures see adolescence as an enjoyable time, our view of it as stressful is more so a result of our industrialized society

Robert Havighurst

stress may arise for adolescents when they confront challenging developmental tasks

Girls 10-14

Growth spurt starts at ten, develop more fat tissue, grow 2-3 inches per year, hips and breasts fill out, have first menstruation (menarche) o Girls who mature earlier are uncomfortable with the attention they receive from boys, more likely to become sexually active, teen mothers produce teen mothers (8 million reported teen pregnancies)

Boys 11-16

heart grows larger voice deepens, develop more muscle tissue have first ejaculation (spermarche) o Boys who mature earlier become leaders in social situations, heroes in sports


uneven maturation of body parts (big hands, too long legs)

Cognitive Development

thinking patterns characteristic of adulthood emerge in adolescence

Dr. Elkind

new cognitive skills can lead to new aspects of personality

Dr. Elkind: Fault with authority

Find fault with authority figures, these people fall short of their ideals

Elkind Argumentativeness

argue any problem for the sake of argument, build own view points by arguing any problem that presents itself

Elkind Indecisiveness

aware of many choices, have trouble making decisions

Elkind self-consciousness

feel that everyone is thinking of them

Elkind Apparent hypocrisy

can't live up to ideals that they talk about

Elkind Invulnerability

feel unique, not subject to rules, can't be hurt

Erik Erikson's Theory

Theory of Identity Crisis

James Marcia

developed four states of identity crisis: • 4 attempts to achieve identity

Identity Moratorium Adolescents

seriously consider issues but have not made a final decisions, there is no commitment but there is consideration

Identity Foreclosure Adolescents

peer pressure-ish, acting based on others suggestions, have made a firm commitment but it is not based on the suggestion of others, no consideration but there is commitment

Identity Confused Adolescents

no serious thought to decision making, no serious thoughts on identity no consideration or commitment

Identity Achievement Adolescents

considered many possible identities and freely committed to one, there is consideration and commitment

Behavioral View of Adolescent Cog. Development

Social Learning View

A.C. Peterson

crisis is not a normal state of affairs, if there is a lot of stress it is caused by teen's environment not a biological trigger

Albert Bandura

Human development is a continuous process we develop by interacting with others (connect to margart mead)

Gender Identity

- Physical and Biological make up, awareness of being male or female

Gender Role

- the standard of how a person of a given gender identity is expected to behave

Traditional Female Gender Role

women are cooperative, emotionally responsive

Traditional Male Gender Role

men are dominant, competitive, and emotionally reserved

Gender Stereotype

oversimplified prejudiced opinion about how men and women should act

Sandra Bem

people should take on more androgynous gender roles a flexible combo of traditionally male and female characteristics


One who breaks traditional gender stereotypes (eg. David Beckham, who is a fashion-conscious male)

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