AP Language Vocabulary (75 Terms)
AP English Language & Composition Kuropas
Terms in this set (75)
A fallacy where the speaker/writer attacks a person's motive or character instead of his/her stance on the issue.
The presentation of an abstract idea through more concrete means. There are at least two levels of meaning. The first is the surface level story line. The second and deeper level of meaning can be moral, political, philosophical, or religious.
The repetition of the same consonant sounds.
An indirect reference to a person, event, statement, or theme found in literature, the other arts, history, myths, religion, or popular culture.
The relationship of similarity between two or more entities or a partial similarity on which a comparison is based.
The process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.
A rhetorical figure involving the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences. It is a type of parallelism.
A brief account of some interesting or entertaining and often humorous incident.
A rhetorical figure in which two ideas are directly opposed. The opposing ideas must be presented in a grammatically parallel way.
A concise statement that reveals a truth or principle. Once a statement is widely known, it is called a proverb.
A figure of speech in which the speaker directly and often emotionally addresses a person who is dead or otherwise not physically present, an imaginary person or entity, something inhuman, or a place or concept. The speaker addresses the object of the apostrophe as if this object were present and capable of understanding and responding.
How conclusions are reached through logical reasoning.
A positive statement, declaration or claim but without support, reason or proof.
Begging the Question
Presenting a premise as if it were a fact when it is debatable.
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, it gives a work a conversational or familiar tone. It can include local or regional dialects.
Compare and Contrast
An exercise focusing on the similarities and differences between two or more people, places or things.
Associations and emotional overtones that have become attached to a word.
A sentence that begins with the main idea, which is followed by phrases and clauses that elaborate upon the main idea.
A word's literal and primary meaning, independent of any emotional associations.
A statement or account that represents something in words.
Makes basic sentences more informative and interesting. It is simply the use of facts with no connotation.
Words that contain connotation.
Something that instructs or provides information for a particular purpose. Its primary aim is to teach readers some lesson, whether moral, political, religious, ethical, or practical
A note placed at the end of an article, chapter, or book that comments on or cites a reference for a designated part of the text.
A word that denotes morals or the guiding beliefs/ideals that characterize a community, a nation or an ideology. It is referred to as the 'ethical appeal' in persuasion.
A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. The euphemism may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement.
A comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory.
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
A deceptive, misleading, or false notion or belief.
A technique that prepares the reader or audience for future events, actions, or revelations.
Exaggeration used for effect or for humor.
The language a writer uses to convey sensory experience. It appeals to the five senses.
When sentence elements are placed out of their normal order.
The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning.
The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development.
The term applied to the idea of reasoned discourse. In persuasion it is referred to as the 'logical appeal'.
Comparing two things without the use of the words "like" or "as". A figure of speech that associates two things; the representation of one thing by another.
A term from the Greek meaning "changing label" or "substitute name". A figure of speech where the name of one object is substituted for that of one closely associated with it.
The prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of the work. Setting, tone and events can affect the mood.
A unifying element in an artistic work, especially any recurrent image, symbol, theme, character type, subject, or narrative detail.
An account of a situation or event.
An attempt to relate two or more ideas that are not related; one idea does not logically lead to the other.
Words which suggest or sound like their meanings.
A combination of words which are apparently contradictory.
A statement which seems contradictory but is actually true.
Repetition of the same grammatical structure in phrases and clauses.
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
A word that denotes "emotion", "passion", or "suffering". A quality in a work that makes the reader experience emotions. It is referred to as the 'emotional appeal' in persuasion.
A sentence in which the main idea (subject and verb) comes at the end of the sentence; the sentence is not grammatically complete until the end.
Giving human traits to something non-human.
Point of View: 1st Person
Where the author tells the story through a character who refers to himself or herself as "I". These are sometimes unreliable narrators.
Point of View: 2nd Person
Where the narrator addresses a "you".
Point of View: 3rd Person Limited
The limited point of view recounts the story through the eyes of a single character. The reader is usually privy to the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character and receives the story as the character understands or experiences it. Such a narrator is generally an observer of or a participant of the action.
Point of View: 3rd Person Omniscient
The omniscient point of view assumes the vantage point of an all-knowing author able to recount the action and enter the mind of any character at any time to reveal his or her thoughts, feelings, and beliefs to the reader.
The assumption that an earlier event causes a later event when there may be no connection between them.
To modify, limit, or restrict, as by giving exceptions.
Something that is used to distract the audience's attention from the real issue.
Use of the same words, phrases, or clauses more than one time for emphasis.
The art of persuasion through speaking and writing.
A question that is asked to produce an effect. It is not used to elicit a reply.
A tempo through a pattern of sounds throughout the work. This pattern may be a result of parallel structure or repetition.
A genre that uses irony, wit, and sometimes sarcasm to expose humanity's vices, giving impetus to change or reform through ridicule. The satirist reduces the vaulted worth of someone or something to its real and—decidedly lower—worth. It differs from comedy in that pure comedy primarily seeks to entertain and amuse. Satire has a moral purpose. It is typically directed at correctable instances of folly or immortality in humanity or human institutions. Its goal is not to abuse so much as to provoke a response, ideally some kind of reform. Satire would not be directed at characteristics individuals cannot change.
A combination of place, time, and social circumstances that provides the general background for the characters and plot of a literary work.
Where two unlike things are compared using the words "like" or "as".
A technique that approximates the flow or jumble of thoughts and sensory impressions that pass through the mind at each instant. The writing frequently appears choppy or fragmented--just as our thoughts, emotions, and sensory impressions often are. The lack of cohension or coherence in no way implies sloppiness, randomness or purposelessness.
A deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises (the first one called "major" and the second called "minor") that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion.
Something that stands for or suggests something larger and more complex.
A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or, occasionally, the whole is used to represent a part.
The arrangement, ordering, grouping, and placement of words within sentences and sentences within paragraphs.
Pertaining or concerning the present life or this world. Enduring for a fixed time only. Something that is temporary or transitory as opposed to eternal.
Not simply the subject of a literary work, but rather a statement that the text seems to be making about the subject.
The position taken by someone expostulating on a particular topic with the intent of proving that position plausible or correct.
The attitude of the author toward the reader of the subject matter of a literary work. An author's tone may be serious, playful, mocking, angry, commanding, apologetic, etc.
A statement that says less than what is meant.
The degree of closeness to correctness.