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Anatomical Test 5
Terms in this set (103)
Ball & socket joint that consists of the head of the femur articulating with the acetabulum of the pelvis
Percentage the head of femur articulates with the acetabulum
Region where the trunk and the lower limbs meet
3 parts of the Pelvis
Right and left ilium
These are joined together posteriorly by the sacrum
Extension of the spinal column with 5 fused vertebrae. Located between the two pelvic bones to join the two.
Forms the project of the hip. It's smooth conclaves surface serves for attachments for muscles. It forms the superior aspect of the acetabulum
The superior aspect of the ilium
Anterior superior iliac spine (asis)
The iliac crest ends in a projection known as this
Anterior inferior iliac spine (aiis)
Just inferior to the asis is a smaller projection known as this
On the posterior aspect of the ilium is a passageway for the largest nerve in the body. This passageway is known as this.
The inferior aspect of the pelvis. It forms the inferior posterior aspect of the acetabulum. It also serves as the origin for the hamstring muscles. Also forms most of the obturator foramen.
The anterior aspect of the pelvis, it forms anterior aspect of the acetabulum and completes obturator foramen
Lighter, thinner, and wider than that of the other gender because of childbirth.
Excess width of a pelvis
Will alter the joint mechanics of the hip, knee, and ankle.
Anterior aspect of the pubis
The two pubic bones are joined together anteriorly here
Each bone has this. It extends laterally to articulate with the ilium and a inferior ramus
Articulates with the ischium
Formed by the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis
Covered by a fibrous sheath to serve as a location for muscle attachment
One of the major differences between the shoulder girdle and the pelvic girdle
The connecting of the two flat bones by the sacrum
Connection of the pelvic bones by the sacrum
Brings about great stability to the structure
The glenoid labrium (acetabular labrium)
Similar to the shoulder, there is a rim of fibrocartilage that encircles the acetabulum known as this. It also serves to deepen the socket to increase stability.
Can occur from a number of conditions such as from hypertrophy of the femoral neck
Hypertrophy of the femoral neck
A condition that could cause a labrium tear. Would impinge and come in contact with the labrium and cause tears of the labrium and wear over a period of years, which would cause the labrium to tear away from the bone
Loose but strong capsule
Surrounding the whole hip joint. It is more dense anterior and superior where the stresses are the greatest and quite thin on the posterior and inferior aspects.
3 strong ligaments that blend with the capsule
Also referred to as the Y ligament, supports the anterior aspect of the hip joint in the standing position and resists the movements of extension, hyperextensioninteral rotation, and some external rotation.
Resists abduction and some resistance to external rotation
Located on the lateral aspect of the hip where it resists addiction and internal rotation
Number of the 3 ligaments that surround the hip joint that resist the movement of flexion
Number of the 3 ligaments that surround the hip joint that are loose during flexion
Because none of the ligaments that surround the hip resist this and are loose during this, this is the movement with the greatest range of motion in the hip joint.
Sarcroiliac joint (SI joint)
The articulation of the sacrum and the 2 pelvic bones is termed as this
Movements of the pelvis
Generally these involve the entire pelvis, not a lot of movement at the SI joint
1. Anterior pelvic rotation
2. Posterior pelvic rotation
3. Right lateral pelvic rotation
4. Left lateral pelvic rotation
5. Right transverse rotation
6. Left transverse pelvic rotation
Defined as the articulation of the head of the femur with the acetabulum of pelvis. It is mobile due to its multiaxial movement and stable due to its bony structure, strong musculature surrounding it, and the pressure difference created by the capsule.
Movements of the hip
5. Internal rotation
6. External rotation
Femur (thigh bone)
The longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body
Term used for a projection of bone
Distal end of the femur
Broaden by the medial and lateral condyle
A rounded projection of bone
The Medial and lateral Condyle at the distal end of the femur articulate with the condyles of the tibia to form this.
Just superior to the femoral condyles are these. They serve as attachment points for the medial (tibial) collateral ligament and the lateral (fibula) collateral ligament.
A rough line of bone located on the mid posterior aspect of the femur
A triangular band implanted by its apex into a depression in the superior aspect of femoral head just below center known as fovea capitus and by its broad base into the margins of the acetabulum and is surrounded by a synovial lining. It is made tense when the hip is flexed and abducted and or laterally rotated. It is not a strong ligament but does contribute to hip stability internally.
The pectineal line
A ridge of bone that runs from the lesser trochanter to the medial superior lip of the linea aspera
The Q angle of the hip
Important feature of the femur. The angle formed between the imaginary line of the quadriceps pull and the imaginary line connecting the center of the patella to the center of tibial tuberosity. It has significant influence on the mechanical axis of a bone
10 - 14 degrees
Normal Q - angles in males
15 - 17 degrees
Normal Q - angles in females
Space between medial and lateral femoral condyles
Terms to describe angulation between structures
3. Genu Valgus
4. Genu Varus
5. Genu Recurvatum
6. Talipes Varus
7. Talipes Valgus
8. Tibial Valgus
9. Tibial Varus
10. Coxa Valga
11. Coxa Vara
Valgus (bow legged)
Refers to angulation outward from proximal to the distal aspect of a structure or away from the midline of the body. An individual is referred to as this or Genu Valgus
Varus (bent inward or knock-kneed)
Refers to an angulation inward of a structure from the proximal to distal aspect toward the midline of the body. An individual is referred to as this or Genu Varus
Genu Valgus (knee turned outward or bow legs)
Causes the weight bearing line to pass to the medial side of the center of the knee. This causes a majority of the body weight to be borne on the medial aspect of the articulating surfaces, therefore subjecting the medial articulating surfaces to an increased compression force, increasing the chances of developing osteoarthritis. Also the lateral collateral ligament will be subjected to an increased tension force, which could cause stretching of the lateral collateral ligament and bring on instability.
Genu Varus (knee turned inward or knock-kneed)
Causes the weight bearing line to pass to the lateral side of the center of the knee. This causes a majority of the body weight to be borne on the lateral aspect of the articulating surfaces, therefore subjecting the lateral articulating surfaces to an increased compression force increasing the chances of developing osteoarthritis. Also the medial collateral ligament will be subjected to an increased tension force, which could cause stretching of the medial collateral ligament and bring instability.
Genu Recurvatum (backward curvature)
Refers to a hyperextension at the knees in a standing position. This condition would increase tension force on structures of the knee (ACL, PCL, hamstring tendons) and increase compressive forces on the anterior aspect of the tibiofemoral joint.
Causes of Genu Recurvatum
Genetic placement of the ACL and PCL
Ankle & foot
Talipes Varus (turned inward ankles/feet)
Refers to a talipes that is turned inward toward the midline of the body. This increases compression forces to the medial aspect of the tibia, talus, and calcaneois, and tension forces to the lateral aspect.
Talipes Valgus (turned outward ankles/feet)
Refers to a talipes that is turned outward away from the midline of the body. This increases compression forces to the lateral aspect of the tibia, talus, and calcaneous, and excessive tension forces to the medial aspect
Causes of Talipes Varus and Talipes Valgus
A congenital misalignment of the tibia with the talus
Tibial Valgus (turned outward tibia)
Inversion of the tibia, increases compression forces on the lateral aspect of the talus and calcaneous.
Tibial Varus (turned inward tibia)
Inversion of the tibia, increases compression forces on the medial aspect of the talus and calcaneous.
Positioned at a specific angle in both the frontal and transverse planes in order to facilitate a congruent articulation within the hip joint and to hold the femur away from the body.
Angle of inclination
The angle of the femoral neck in the frontal plane which is approximately 125 degrees with respect to the femoral shaft. It is important in determining which individuals may have a greater chance for having a fractured hip. The range of the angle is usually within 90 to 135 degrees.
Angle of inclination at birth
Larger than 125 degrees by almost 20 to 25 degrees (145 to 150)
Angle of inclination as a person matures
Lowers and assumes a weight bearing position. It's also believe that it continues to lower by about 5 degrees later. This would further enhance the tension force on the superior aspect of the femoral neck which can determine which individuals have a greater chance for having a fractured hip.
Coxa Valga (hip away from the midline)
The angle of inclination is greater than 125 degrees. This lengthens the limb, reduces the effectiveness of the abductors, increases the load on the femoral head, but decreases the load on the femoral neck.
Coxa Vara (hip toward the midline)
The angle of inclination is less than 125 degrees. The limb will be shortened, the abductors are more effective, there is less load on the femoral head, but more load on the femoral neck.
Angle of anteversion
The angle of the femoral neck in the transverse plane. Normally the femoral neck is rotated anteriorly 12 to 14 degrees with respect to the femur.
Excessive anteversion in the hip joint in which it rotates beyond 14 degrees to the anterior side produces this. This produces an increase in the Q angle, patellar tracking problems, increase in leg length which could start the scoliosis process, and increase lumbar curvature.
When the angle of anteversion is reversed so that it moves posteriorly. This creates an externally rotated gait, supinated foot and a decrease in the Q angle, patellar tracking problems, and begin the scoliosis process.
Neck of the femur
The femur is held away from the acetabulum and pelvis by this. It is formed by cancellous bone with a thin corticol layer for strength. The corticol layer is reinforced on the lateral surface of this where great strength is required in response to the high tension force.
Leg - length discrepancy
Caused by anatomical factors such as unequal leg growth or functional discrepancies such as a pelvic tilt or an altered angle of anteversion
Anatomical leg length
Measured from the asis to the lateral malleolus
Functional leg length
Measured from the unbilicus to the medial malleolus
These discrepancies are greater than 0.393 to 0.780 ins. and are considered significant
The muscles that act on the hip joint and pelvic girdle
3. Tensor fasciae latae
Iliopsoas origin (iliacus)
inner surface of the ilium
Iliopsoas insertion (iliacus)
Lesser trochanter of the femur and shaft inferior
Iliopsoas origin (psoas major and minor)
Transverse processes of L1-5, sides of vertebral bodies T12 and L1-5, vertebral disks of T12 and L1-5 and base of sacrum
Iliopsoas insertion (psoas major and minor)
Lesser trochanter of the femur and shaft inferior
Flexion of the hip and external rotation of the femur. Depending on which body part is stabilized dictates the iliopsoas's movement.
Example of Iliopsoas Action
In a supine position, the hips are stabilized by the floor, therefore this muscle will raise the legs. If the legs are stabilized, this muscle will contract to cause flexion of the trunk as a unit on the thigh
The origin of this muscle on the lumbar vertebrae (lower back) can cause problems in activities such as six inch leg raises. As the legs are raised this muscle can cause excessive lumbar curvature bringing about low back pain. Also at risk are football lineman as the crouch in a 3 or 4 point stance with gravity pulling on the abdominal region.
Refers to the lower back and sides between the ribs and pelvis
Latin for tailor because used to cross the legs in a tailor's position. When only one action is taking place (knee flexion or hip flexion) it is effectively stronger. It is greatly weakened when both actions take place simultaneously. It is the longest muscle in the body.
Anterior medial aspect of the tibial just below the condyle (known as the pes anserine)
Latin for crows foot. Given the name because two other muscles (the gracilis and semitendinosus) besides the sartorius insert here. It therefore resembles a crow foot.
Flexion of the hip and knee, External rotation of the femur as it flexes the hip and knee,Abduction of the hip, and anterior pelvic rotation
Stretching and strengthening the Sartorius
Accomplished with knee flexion and hip flexion exercises or by passively taking the hip into extreme extension, adduction, and internally rotated with the knee extended utilizing a partner.
Tensor Fasciae Latae origin
Anterior iliac crest and surface just below the crest
Tensor Fasciae Latae insertion
Superior anterior one-quarter of the iliotibial tract
Tensor Fasciae Latae action
Abduction and flexion of the hip, internal femoral rotation during hip flexion and anterior pelvic rotation - tightening of the fascia lata
A strong dense broad tissue sheath that invests the muscles of the thigh like an elastic stocking. It functions to prevent the thigh muscles from bulging excessively when they contract, which improves their effectiveness. The lateral aspect of this is know as the iliotibial band.
The lateral aspect of the fascia lata. It is extremely strong and much thicker than the rest of the fascia lata. It functions as reinforcement of the fascia lata and as an insertion location for muscles (gluteus Maximus).
Tensor fascia lata
When this muscle contracts it tenses the fascia lata enabling the gluteus Maximus to produce greater power due to the tighter insertion structure.
IT band friction syndrome
As the IT band crosses over the head of the fibula and the lateral tibial condyle the anterior-posterior movement of the IT band produced by knee flexion and extension can cause tendinitis type pain symptoms.
The attachment site for the IT band. Located on the anterolateral aspect of the proximal tibia, just lateral to the superior tibial tuberosity.
The deep lateral rotators of the femur
2. Gemellus superior
3. Gemellus inferior
4. Obturator internus
5. Obturator externus
6. Quadratus femoris
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