Unit 7 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity

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Terms in this set (...)

Republic
Form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote.
Patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class.
Plebeian
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population.
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
Consule
In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government.
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Dictator
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time.
Legion
A military unit in the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 BC); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Hannibal
A brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat, the first Punic war. He was 29 years old when he fought in the second Punic war, which he lost. He eventually commits suicide rather than submitting to Rome.
Civil War
a conflict between two political groups within the same county.
Julius Caesar
(100-44BC) Military leader and strategist. In 60BC, he joined with Crassus, and Pompey to be elected consul in 59BC. Dominated Rome as about of a triumvirate, a group of three rulers. Eventually became dictator for life of Rome.
Triumvirate
In Ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
Augustus
(63BC-14AD) means "exalted one." Born with the name Octavian, he was Julius Caesar's adopted son. He was the unchallenged ruler of Rome.
Pax Romana
a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27BC-180AD
Jesus
A jew born in Bethlehem in Judea, supposedly born between 6-4 BC. Very little mentioned historically, life and teachings are found in the Gospels. Raised in north Judea, in a town called Nazareth.
Apostle
One of Jesus followers who preached and spread Jesus' teachings; Jesus' disciples and/or pupils. 12 men are thought to have been this.
Paul
An apostle who had enormous influence on the development of Christianity. He was a Jew who never met Jesus and was an enemy of Christianity at first.
Diaspora
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Judea, especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman's destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 AD
Constantine
Emperor of Rome, in 312 BC went to war and prayed for divine help at the battle at Milvian Bridge. Reportedly he had a vision of a cross and made his soldiers paint this cross on their shields. When they won the war, he accredited it the Christian God. In 313 AD, he announced the end to Christian persecution. Edict of Milan: Christianity was now emperor approved in the Roman Empire.
Bishop
a high-ranking Christian official who supervises a number of local churches. Priest, supervised local churches.
Peter
Apostle of Jesus, famous for being the first pope to which all popes trace their authority from. He was also the first bishop of Jerusalem and he was referred to as the "rock" on which the Christian church was built.
Pope
a bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic Church. Peter was the first, father and head of the Christian Church. Leader of the whole Church.
Inflation
a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with the rise in prices.
Mercenary
foreign soldiers who fought for money; they would accept lower pay than Romans, but they felt less loyalty to the empire.
Constantinople
city of Constantine, shifts the Roman empire to the East (Greek city of Byzantium.
Diocletian
Strong-willed army leader who became emperor in 284AD. Ruled with iron fist, limited personal freedom and restored the empire by increasing its strength.
Attila
Responsible for the Germanic invasions of Rome. He was a hun, chieftain, who united the Huns. He had a 100,000 strong army who terrorized both sides of the empire, East and West. He and his armies attacked and plundered at least 70 cities.
Greco-Roman Culture
an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures.
Pompeii
A Roman town where Roman art can be found. It was preserved in volcanic ash in 79AD, killing 2,000 people.
Virgil
a poet whose most famous work of Latin literature was the Aeneid, the epic of the legendary Aeneas. It was written in praise of Rome and Roman virtues. He notes that government was one of the most important Roman contributions to civilization.
Tacitus
Roman historian who was notorious for presenting the facts accurately. He was very concerned with the Roman's lack of morality and he wrote about one of Rome's cruelest emperor's, Nero.
Aqueduct
a pipeline or channel to carry water to populated areas.