54 terms

Modules 5-8


Terms in this set (...)

A social skills autopsy
An ongoing, collaborative attempt to determine the cause and effect of a social error to prevent it from happening again
(5) Steps of A Social Skills Autoposy
(1)Ask child to describe what happened, (2)ask child to identify what he or she thinks was the social mistake responsible, (3)help the child identify the particular social error accurately, (4)create a social scenario with the same basic error and moral and see if the child recognizes and (5) last let the child practise the remedy at least one in the coming week
Aggressive children
Can be verbally or physical aggressive Physical aggression more noticeable in boys than girls, relational aggression more noticeable in girls than boys (acts to deprive children of friends), In one study 27% boys aggressive and 93% of those were overtly aggressive, 22% girls were aggressive and 95% of those engaged in relational aggression, ¼ of aggressive children use both physical and relational, Girls almost equal to boys in terms of aggression when relational aggression assessed,
An extensive study of bullying in elementary, middle and high schools in Colorado
surveyed student's personal qualities (i.e. self-esteem, attitudes and beliefs about bullying and view os school cultures) Found that, Many students became bullies after being victims, Both bullies and victims have low self-esteem and negative views of their schools, believing authorities are unfair and don't protect against bullying, Bullying related to getting and keeping power and being victimized related to being seen as vulnerable/weak, Positive school climate decreases bullying, Programs for building self-esteem and school success prevent bullying
Blake Taylor
In last 2 years H.S. he wrote a book about growing up with ADHD, Emphasizing an active, problem-solving approach to ADHD difficulties, self-improvement is a constant struggle
Children's emotional responses
Children's emotional responses decrease learning, Children high in aggression and impulsivity at age 5 had lower grades in elementary school, Children's feeling of insecurity in attachments to mothers and parents martial relationship affected physiological arousal level, ability to sleep and performance on tests, Children entering first grade feeling anxious or depressed more likely to be bullied
Elementary schoolchildren description both mothers and fathers
Both parents described as loving, happy, honest, responsible and self-confident, Fathers more interested in learning and creativity, Mothers more interested about other's feelings, Described "having good family relationships" as most important goal of others and "educational/vocational" goals as valued more by fathers
Martin Seligman
Offers a program for parents in his book The optimistic Child", Documented nature of pessimistic behaviours that lead to discouragement and withdrawal from challenging tasks, Pessimistic children consider difficulty their own fault and as unchangeable and see a poor math grade a result of their own stupidity and avoid studying due to being discouraged
Parent's promotion of children's school success
Healthy eating, sleeping and exercise habits affect intellectual well-being
Parents' beliefs in their children's abilities
Parents attitudes about ability and learning influence their child's view of difficulties and their persistence in remedying them, When parents have 'entity view of ability' and see ability as internal and unchangeable children adopt the same view , When parents have 'incremental view of ability' children see developing new skills and putting in effort remedy difficulties, Parents beliefs in their children's abilities encourage feelings of competence and participation in activities associated with the opposite gender
Ross Greene's collaborative problem-solving approach
Helps children with a wide variety of problems that produce explosions at home/school/with friends, outburst occur when child lacks skills to cope with situations that are too difficult. Parents should empathize with child, calmly gather info so parent and child can define problem and understand difficulty and carry out collaborative problem solving with child to prevent future problems
Well-liked children
Parent's with secure attachments with children and that use authoritative parenting have well liked children. Parents of not well liked children use harsh, directive, authoritarian controlling behaviours with children
Adolescent development of development of ethnic identity
first no interest in ethnic history (if they remain in this state they show identity diffusion and automatically accept others view of their ethnic group showing identity foreclosure) , then moratorium where they explore ethnic background which can be difficult (confront ethnic difficulties of the past and burdens of the present integrating personal experience) and finally achievement of identity
Adolescent girls more likely to suffer depression after their first sexual experience
But only when they have it earlier than peers and the relationship is dissolved,After first sexual experience teens become more distant from parents
Adolescent's false self
midadolescents have many different selves, They express their false selves when they put on an act and say what they don't mean to make a good impression, experiment with different selves and to avoid others' low opinion of them
Aggressive, rule-breaking teen boys
Continue to have problems through adolescence into adulthood, More apt to substance abuse, school drop out, find difficulty getting and keeping a job and have driving infractions, Tend to date girls who are also aggressive and start families early
Authoritative parenting in adolescence
Authoritative parents have strong commitments to children and valance demands with responsiveness to children's needs, Research with authoritative parenting has positive benefits to all adolescence
Boys who rank high in identity exploration
come from families where they can express their own opinions and receive support from parents even when they disagree with them
Adolescent girls who rank high in identity exploration
come from families where they are challenged and receive little support from parents who are contentious of one another
Characteristics of teen dating
Friendships set the stage for dating , Adolescents learn how to be close to same-sex peers and solve conflicts, then get to know opposite-sex peers in friendship groups, moving to group and single dating and then romantic relationships, usually intense and brief, Most teens have dated once they graduate from high school
Correlations to parental knowledge and monitoring of early teens
Recent studies suggest parent's knowledge comes from adolescent's willingness to tell them what they are doing which is part of a reciprocal relationship NOT from observing and tracking children. When parents are warm and responsive, children feel accepted and comfortable sharing information with parents. Parental knowledge and monitoring related to low levels of substance abuse and antisocial activity
Early maturing girls compared to later maturing girls
Timing of sexual development has physiological repercussions. For girls, being on time related to greater satisfaction with bodies and physical appearance. Early maturing girls have greater difficulties than later-maturing girls and experience more conflicts with parents and peers because bodies and interests are more advanced and they are more prone to social anxiety, depression and substance abuse
Early teens anxiety and nervousness
Early teens generally report anxiety and nervousness at school and more positive feelings at home with family members
Ethic Identity
Ethnic identity formation comes in four forms from a diffuse state through exploration to achieved identity which usually occurs closer to age 20
Marcia's paths to arriving at a sense of identity
Four ways of establishing identity (DFMA, diffusion, foreclosure, moratorim, achievement)
Most widely used mind-altering substance by teens
Myrna Shure
developed "I can problem solve" programs to teach children 4-13 to learn to find their own solutions to problems that bother them. Shure believe to solve problems children must: understand other's feelings and underlying motivations, generate new solutions to problems, anticipate consequences of solutions and plan behaviours in advance to avoid potential problems
Reed Larson
conducted daily mood surveys and found that in one study 27% of early teens reported boredom when beeped (?), much of the time at school in study activities , Report concerns of being trapped in the present waiting for someone to prove that life is worth living, Believes positive development requires teens to develop initiative
Socially anxious teens
Self-disclosure over the Internet easier for socially anxious teens than face-to-face disclosure, socially anxious teens less likely to use the Internet than socially confident peers , Those who did use it communicated more online than non-socially anxious teens
Teens with insecure-preoccupied attachments
Teens who have insecure-preoccupied attachments report many symptoms that others close to them don't know, When teens have insecure-preoccupied attachments to parents, both become trapped in angry conflicts and teens are less successful in establishing autonomy, Teens anger can trigger parents' anger which increase teen's anger and this interaction can be taken into young adulthood with relationships with partners
Teens with secure attachments
Secure teens more willing to open up and communicate with parents about worries and feelings so a positive process of interaction is established
William Damon's Youth Charter program
Developed to combat cultural forces that make rearing children more difficult, Parents can use it to organize teachers, clergy, police and others who care about children to develop community practices and standards that promote children's healthy development
Benefits of remarriage for parents
Benefits include emotional closeness, intimacy and sexual satisfaction, In caring relationships, parents feel greater self-esteem, contentment and happiness
Families of adolescent fathers
tend to come from low-income families in which parents often have problems with antisocial behaviour, Parents use ineffective disciplinary techniques and don't monitor them well, Adolescent fathers more likely to be involved when other people in the environment support their involvement
Gender identity of children of gay/lesbian couples
There is no evidence that children of lesbian/gay parents have increased likelihood of having a lesbian/gay gender identity or same-sex sexual orientation, However, many do have less sex-stereotypes interests and activities
In interviews, four hundred gay/lesbian parents identified strengths in their children
understanding and accepting of different points of view, Open in talking about their feelings and problems, Free of the restrictions of traditional models
Involvement of Non-resident unmarried fathers
Non-resident unmarried fathers more likely to stay highly involved over a two-year period when they had positive relationships with mothers, and each parent had positive relationships with the other's parents, Extended family support also helped fathers stay involved, Main predictor of involvement was romantic involvement. When parents were romantically involved, fathers are engaged
Paul Amato
conducted analyses to determine fathers contributions to children's lives. In positive coparental relationship, child views a model of how two people relates, cooperate, negotiate and compromise. Children who learn these skills tend to get along better with peers. Children's positive well-being associated with father's education, father's income, quality of coparental relationship and quality of parent-child relationship
Pregnant teen mothers who made positive changes in their behaviour when they became pregnant
did so thanks to care and support received from mothers, extended family members like aunts and grandmothers, own fathers and babies fathers and allowed them to cope and become better mothers
Research on gay and lesbian parents
gay/lesbian parents share child care and household tasks more equally than heterosexual parents, make transition to parenthood similar to heterosexual parents and are open and honest in communication with children
Robert Emery
describes the grief cycle that the process of divorce triggers. In beginning of divorce process, adults swing through cycles of love, anger and sadness with each feeling experienced separately and intensely and parents at different stages of feelings than spouses. Over time, intensity decreases and feelings tend to blend together.
Suggests parents harness anger by
accepting feeling of divorce and talking about them, not responding to partner's provocations, maintaining neutral, business-like approach to problem solving, deciding to focus on most important issues, being pleasant and emotionally neutral with spouse when children present, examining own role in martial problems and remembering the good times and fun despite sadness and loss
Stepparent acceptance
Many children feel closer with stepparents when relationships were formed early, Step parents should be parent like but not take on the role of parents, Should get to know children outside their roles of the family
Teen parents compared to other parents
Adolescents teen mothers are more likely to have been retained in school than their cousins (mothers young age may influence school outcome)
Teens who report close relationships with fathers and stepfathers
Closeness with biological fathers lead to more positive moods, less aggressive behaviour and less substance use,Closeness with stepfathers did not predict well being
When children become aware of parent's sexual orientation
when children learn gradually and in a supportive social climate they may feel as if it's not a big deal, the 2 biggest worries are that other children would find out and reject them or think that they were also homosexual
Young children born to teen parents
When the young children of teen parents compared to children of mother's sisters who had children at older ages, cousins perform at similar levels on cognitive tests suggesting it is not young age, but parents family experiences that are important BUT adolescents of teen mothers more likely to ha been retained in school than their cousins suggesting mother's young age may influence school outcome
Abused teens
estimates that 1 in 4 girls and one in 6 boys have experiences some form of sexual abuse by age 18
Information from studies of victimization
Victimizations one of most common forms of trauma in child's lives with one in 3 experiencing it , Children exposed to victimization only or victimization and disaster had more difficulties with psychological adjustment than those exposed to neither
Maltreatment and stress hormones
Maltreatment creates fear that activates the brain to produce hormones that trigger adrenal glands to produce cortisol,Cortisol helps body respond to stress and regulates daily pattern of arousal, alertness and attention. Ongoing stress disrupts usually patterns of cortisol release and children show atypical patterns. When children cortisol levels low they may become less responsive, alert and attentive. When fear is ongoing and body maintains high levels of cortisol, there can be changes in the immune system and memory area of the brain. Maltreatment/cortisol hyper arousal can lead to declines in intellectual functioning, attention and memory but effects can be reversible
Pressure felt by foster parents
Children who come into their homes with a history of difficult life experiences and are often dealing with strong emotional reactions to those experiences, Have to deal with stress of children being separated from own family and living with a new family ,They also have had no previous relationship with children and have to relinquish ties when parents leave their home
The family member who most influences the family's level of stress response
childhood illness, Research says if mothers get information and accept diagnosis, family stress is reduced
The Wolin's
Developed a challenge model of development, Wolin's believe that adversity stimulates person to branch out, take measure to protect themselves and find other sources of strength that promote development 7 resiliencies that individuals develop-- Insight, independence, relationships, initiative, creativity, humour and morality
Young people who left foster care at age 18 and were followed up at age 19
When followed up at age 19, group that left foster care still wrestled with worse problems than national sample of 19 year olds. More than 1/3 had no high school diploma and they were more likely to be unemployed, pregnant, unable to pay rent and sometimes hungry and hopeless