The attempt to ascertain knowledge by the interpretation of omens or supernatural events such as the use of spiritual practices like Tarot card reading or the casting of bones.
A religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members are still living and that they have an interest in family affairs and can influence the fates of family members.
Mandate of Heaven
The Chinese concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Chou dynasty and later the emperors of China. It saw Heaven bless a just ruler, but take away their authority if they are unjust.
Any external religious practice, observance, or devotion surrounding a deity, holy person, or religious object of a particular religious tradition.
A movement in the eleventh century CE that promulgated the resurgence of Confucianism while reinterpreting it in the light of Taoist and Buddhist influences.
From a root word meaning "The Way." The namesake of this religion is considered to be the driving force of the universe.
Meaning "shaded and sunny," they are opposite but complementary extremes in Chinese culture.
A paradoxical statement or story used to clear the mind of its many obstacles so that insight and enlightenment could come.
The collection of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism for study. They were written or edited by Confucius.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the accepted curriculum to be studied and passed in order to hold civil office.
From the Chinese meaning "proper" or "rites," it is the practice of proper behavior specific to one's relationship to another as well as the rituals that must be properly performed in order for one to be called a chun-tzu.
These are the sayings of Confucius.
According to Confucius, a person who lives by the ideal of jen and is neither petty, arrogant, mean-spirited, nor vengeful.
Refers to "humanity" or "benevolence." It points inward towards one's heart.
Meaning "action without action," it centers on allowing nature to evolve without human interference.
Means "immortal." It refers to Taoists who have reached their ultimate goal - physical immortality.
The practice of positioning object - especially gravesites, buildings, and furniture - to achieve positive effects based on belief in yin and yang and the flow of chi.
A household shrine set up to honor ancestors.
Communion of saints
The term that refers to the unity of all those living on earth (the pilgrim Church), those being purified in purgatory (the Church suffering), and those enjoying the blessings of heaven (the Church in glory).
Making an offering or saying a prayer or petition to God on behalf of another.
Chinese Rites Controversy
A dispute within the Church about whether or not Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to their ancestors constituted adultery. Jesuits said no, Dominicans said yes. Has since been allowed in some ways.
"The incarnation of the Gospel in native cultures and also the introduction of these cultures into the life of the Church." - John Paul II