Biology Digestive System Practice Quiz
Terms in this set (43)
Trace the path of food through the digestive track.
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
What types of digestion take place in the mouth? Describe both.
mechanical and chemical. enzymes are added to food, the teeth break the food into smaller pieces
What is peristalsis?
A wavelike motion that helps propel, or push, the contents of the digestive system ahead to the next organs
What are the chemicals that are secreted by the glands in the stomach?
Gastric juices, pepsin, and hydrochloric acid
What chemical makes the stomach acidic?
What is the function of pepsin? Under what conditions does it function?
A gastric juice that breaks down proteins into peptides and function sunder a low pH
Why aren't the small intestines acidic?
The pancreas secretes an alkaline solution into the small intestine, neutralizing the stomach acid and stopping the pepsin
What is the duodenum?
First 25cm of the small intestine
Name the three accessory organs.
liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
What is the function of each accessory organ?
Liver - produces bile
gallbladder - stores bile
pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes, hormones, and alkaline juices
In what organ is digestion completed?
What is another name for the large intestines?
What type of bacteria inhibit the large intestines?
anaerobic, forming vitamins B and K
What is the appendix?
vestigial structure in between small intestine and colon
Nutrients provide the body with the energy and materials it needs for
growth, maintenance, and repair
All essential amino acids must be
obtained from the foods we eat
Is soluble in fat, assists with blood clotting, and is found in green vegetables...
What are the organic compounds that help activate enzymes during chemical reactions?
What do the brain and red blood cells receive most of their energy directly from?
What should most of the body's energy needs be supplied from?
The first portion of the small intestine
Where is the pharynx located?
the back of the throat
What provides a passage for both food and air?
Chemically break down food, mechanically break apart food, absorb nutrient materials...
the functions of the digestive system
Where is the stomach located?
the top right of the digestive system
Most of the products of the digestive system are absorbed into the circulatory system from which structure?
the large intestines
Hydrocloric acid, pepsin, and saliva result in what?
The wavelike contractions of muscle that move food through the digestive system are called what?
enzymes in the saliva begin the chemical digestion of
pepsin and hydrocloric acid in the stomach begin the digestion of
breaks down globules of fat into droplets
fat molecules are broken down into fatty acids by
what does a villus look like?
long and finger-like
where are the villi located?
what is the function of villi?
what are the small structures inside villi?
the body most easily uses the energy provided by
the major building blocks of body tissue are supplied by foods containing
the amino acids that humans must obtain from food are called __________ amino acids
the main organs of the digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
digestion is completed where most nutrients are absorbed called the
describe the chemical phase of digestion in the mouth
the enzymes in saliva begin to break down carbohydrates in the food
which structure sends enzymes through a duct into the first part of the small intestine?