48 terms

terminating decimal

A decimal number that ends or terminates

repeating decimal

A decimal that repeats a digit or group of digits forever

opposites

____________ are two number that are the same distance from 0 on a number line but they lie in opposite directions.

origin

(0,0)

inverse operations

Operations that are the opposite of each other and cancel each other out. Addition and subtractions are inverse operations, as are multiplication and division

simple interest

Interest earned only on the original principal amount invested

compound interest

Interest earned or paid on both the principal and previously earned interest.

proportional relationship

two quantities increase at the same rate

absolute value

The distance a number is from zero on a number line. ALWAYS POSITIVE

rational number

a number that can be expressed as a ratio (fraction) of two integers - terminating and repeating decimals are considered rational

irrational number

a number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a repeating or terminating decimal

inequalities

Algebraic statements that have ≠, <, >, ≤, or ≥ as their symbols of comparison.

equivalent fractions

Fractions that have the same value

round

truncate

ratios

a comparison of two quantities using division

slope

The ratio of the rise and the run between any two points in a line

constant of proportionality

In a proportional relationship, equations are of the form y=kx, where k is the constant of proportionality

associative property

(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)

commutative property

The property that says that two or more numbers can be added or multiplied in any order without changing the result

distributive property

a(b + c) = ab + ac

order of operations

A rule for evaluating expressions: first perform the operations in parentheses, then compute powers, then perform all multiplication and division from left to right, and then perform all addition and subtraction from left to right.

diameter

A chord that passes through the center of the circle

pi

The ratio of the circumference divided by the diameter

circumference

The distance around a circle

area of a circle

A=πr²

sector

The part of a circle that looks like a piece of pie. A sector is bounded by 2 radii and an arc of the circle.

volume of a cylinder

V= πr²h

surface area of a cylinder

2πrh+2πr²

similar shapes

Figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size are similar.

scale factors

Comparing the lengths of corresponding sides of similar figures

translation

A transformation that "slides" each point of a figure the same distance in the same direction.

reflection

A transformation that "flips" a figure over a mirror or reflection line.

mean

average of the scores - add them up and divide by total number of scores

median

The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order

range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

pie chart

Chart that shows the relationship of a part to a whole

histogram

A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The height of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores.

sample space

The set of all possible outcomes

probability

A number from 0 to 1 that measures the likelihood that an event will occur

percent

A ratio that compares a number to 100

relative frequency

the fraction or percent of the time that an event occurs in an experiment

stem and leaf plot

A display of data in which digits with larger place values are "stems" and digits with smaller place values are "leaves."

outlier

A value much greater or much less than the others in a data set

lateral surface area

Sum of the surface areas of all the faces of a space figure except the bases

metric units

You can convert between the smaller and larger metric units by simply moving the decimal point.

customary units

The measurement system often used in the US

adding positive and negative numbers

Change all subtraction to addition by adding the opposite of the number.

multiplying and dividing positive and negative numbers

Same symbols = positive

Different symbols = negative

Different symbols = negative