52 terms

AP World Chapter 22 Vocab

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Nikita Khrushchev
Russian soviet statesman and premier after Stalin who denouced him. He led the destalinzation of Russia and argued for major innovations.
Destalinization
Social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming named in his honor.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet leader who acted more western but he also was more open to western-style reforms that any other.
Glasnost
Russian word for openness and it allowed more open discussion of political, social, and economic issues, as well as open critism of the government.
Democratization
Gorbachev believed that he could keep the old Soviet structure, inlcuding Communist party control, but at the same time insert a little democracy into the system.
Perestroika
Gorbachev's most radical and also his least succesful reform. He tried to keep the old soviet structure, and modernize from within. It tranferred many economic powers held by the central government to private hands and the market economy.
Boris Yeltsin
Elected president of the Russian Republic and former Politburo member who had been removed from the Politburo a few years earlier because his radical views of fended the conservatives.
Vladimir Putin
Set out to redefine Russia's place in the world, a two dimensional task that required a new interpretation of the country's relationship with the West, as well as it's role among the former Soviet States.
Containment
Keeping communism from spreading
Detente
Peaceful coexisetence with the Soviet Union
Osama Bin Laden/Al qaeda
Head of Al Qaeda, the international terrorist organization that claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq since 1979 to 2003. He led Iraq in a long war againist Iran (1980-88), and in 1990 he tried to take control of Kuwait.
Weapons of mass destruction
Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use.
Preemption
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
Command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Deng Xiaoping
Communist Party leader who seen as responsible for Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976.
Socialist Market Economy
The term used by the government of China to refer to the country's current economic system. It is meant to convey the mix of state control (socialism) and market forces (capitalism) that China is now following in its quest for economic development. The implication is that socialism will promote equality, while the market (especially the profit motive) will encourage people to work hard and foreign companies to invest.
Household responsiblity system
was a practice in China, first adopted in agriculture in 1979 and later extended to other sectors of the economy, by which local managers are held responsible for the profits and losses of an enterprise. This system partially supplanted the egalitarian distribution method, whereby the state assumed all profits and losses.
Private Business
under control of the party, urban co-ops, service organizations, rural industries that operate as capitalist enterprises, BAMBOO capitalism, state sector has gradually diminished, price controls lifted
Specific Economic Zones
Specific area within a country which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Tiananmen Crisis
demonstration by students intellectuals criticizing corruption and demanding democratic reforms, government responded by sending army in to cease protests who killed hundreds of citizens
Supranational Organizations
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organizationurban morphology the study of the physical form and structure of urban places
Intergration
the act of unting of bringing together, especially people of different races
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Fragmentation
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
The World Bank
an organization whose main aims are to provide aid and advice to developing countries, as well as reducing poverty levels and encouraging and safeguarding international investment.
European Union
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada.
More developed countries
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativity far along a continuum of development.
Less developed countries
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
Compressed modernity
Rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions.
Modernization Model
a model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
Dependency Theory
a structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop
Command economies
economic systems in which the government largely decides what goods and services will be produced, who will get them, and how the economy will grow
Market economies
Individuals make their own decisions about what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it.
Mixed economies
Economic systems in which some allocation of resources is made by the market and some by the government
Privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Megacities
Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty.
Green revolution
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
Human rights movement
changing the way society views the rights of all of its members including minorities, clients with terminal illness (euthanasia), pregnant women, and older adults
Universal Declaration of Human rights
A 1946 United Nations covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights.
Non-governmental organizations
A private sector organization that does not primarily aim to make a profit. Instead, they operate for the benefit of others in society.
Modernism
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
Post-modernism
A movement that came to the fore in the 1980's. Post-Modern Artists rejected Modernism and in many cases returned to depicting the figure (as opposed to abstraction) and turned to appropriating mass produced images and mining popular culture for image sources.
Cultural globalization
The interconnected nature of culture through meetings and the influence of cultures on one another
Cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.
Global Pop culture
popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, the Internet, television, food, and fashion
Global Elite culture
attitudes and outlook of well educated, prosperous, Western oriented people around the world.
Nationalism
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
Politicization of religion
Use of religious principles to promote political ends
Stateless nations
people groups without established sovereign borders; such as Kurds or Palestinians