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Terms in this set (88)
detects mechanical stimuli. Ex: ears responding to sound
detects light. Ex: retina in the eye
detects changes in the chemical environment. Ex: taste and smell
the body's relative position in space
Sensory nerve endings that respond to various stimuli
Convert a stimulus from the environment to an action potential received by the brain.
1. Chemicals dissolve in saliva on the taste buds
2. Chemicals bind receptors
3. Initiate an elecotrochemical signal to the brain
Process of Gustation
Salty, Sweet, Sour, Bitter, and Umami (allows for taste of amino acids)
5 Primary tastes
carry taste information from tongue, palate, epiglottis, esophagus. (glossopharygeal: posterior 1/3, facial: anterior 2/3 of tongue, vagus: rest of taste buds)
Cranial nerves innervate taste buds and...
1. Nerves project to medulla oblongata
2. Signals are relayed to hypothalamus and amygdala
3. Then to the Thalamus (relays signal to the postcentral gyrus where we become conscious of taste)
4. From thalamus to the orbitofrontal cortex (integration with sight and sound)
Is 98% water. It dissolves food so food chemical can enter the taste pores. Without saliva we could not taste.
Raised protrusions called papillae
Taste buds are located on....
Taste bud structure: taste buds are taste receptor cells bundled in clusters
As you get older, taste buds become...
How many taste buds do we have on average?
taste buds than men
Women have more....
Which sense is the weakest?
1. Ordor molecules dissolve in olfactory mucosa. (volatile molecules)
2. Odorant binds receptors on olfactory hairs (cilia)
3. Initiates an action potential
4. Electrochemical signal transmitted to the brain (temporal lobe)
5. Secondary pathways to hippocampus & amygdala (limbic system) and hypothalamus (hunger center)
(Axons travel through the the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone into the olfactory bulb.
Process of Olfaction
Olfactory nerve fascicles
they can dissolve in the olfactory mucosa
Ordor molecules must be volatile, which means....
Where the perception of smell occurs
Receptors adapt quickly: Temporal lobe
emotional responses to ordors
Receptors adapt quickly: Amygdala and Hippocampus
coughing, salivating, sneezing or vomiting in response to orders
Visceral Reactions to ordor
Cornea: Primary structure focusing light entering the eye
Pupil: Helps regulate the amount of light passing through to the retina
Aqueous Humor: fluid providing protective functions and the curving of the cornea
Lens: fine tuning of images/ stiffens with age
Vitreous Humor: maintains eyeball shape
Macula: High concentration of cells responsible for sharp central vision
Sclera: Provides protection and muscle attachment
Lacrimal gland: releases tears which flow across eyeball and helps wash away foreign particles
Iris: connective tissue and smooth muscle. Controls the size of the pupil
III: Oculomotor (Medial, superior and inferior rectus & inferior oblique)
IV: Trochlear (Superior oblique)
VI: Abducens (lateral rectus)
3 cranial nerves that control eye movement
Superior rectus: upward movement
Superior oblique: downward and outward movement
Medial rectus: inward movement
Lateral rectus: outward movement
Inferior oblique: upward and outward movement
Inferior rectus: downward movement
Transparent mucous membrane lines the eyelids and covers sclera except for the cornea. Made of both non-keratinized columnar and simple squamous epithelium
Series of transparent structures that bend or refract light rays to focus them on the retina (Lens, cornea, and aqueous and vitreous humors)
The optical components
Ciliary body: produces aqueous humor and helps maintain a healthy eye
Perception of light emitted or reflected from objects in the environment
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from 400 to 750 nm. Light must cause a photochemical reaction in the retina to produce a nerve signal.
Visible light is...
1. Light enters eye and is converged by the cornea then the lens.
2. Light rays intersect at the virtreous humor and diverge back to the retina
3. Rods and cones in the retina convert light energy into signals that are carried to the brain by the optic nerve (phototransduction)
"How it works"
Retina: Where light energy is converted into nerve impulses
1. Light stimulates photoreceptors (rods and cones)
2. Electric signal from photoreceptors travels to ganglion. Bipolar cells receive input from the cones. Horizontal cells link cones and bipolar cells.
3. Ganglion goes to optic nerve
4. The blind spot is the absence of photoreceptors in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
In depth: the retina
Color vision and visual acuity
Dim light, motion and general shapes
Rods out number cones 10 to 1
Peripherally located - night vision and star gazing
Located within the retina. Largest concentration of cone cells in the eye
any audible vibration of molecules. A vibrating object pushes air molecules into the eardrum making it vibrate
Wave amplitude =
High pitched, short wavelength stimulates region of cochlea closest to the middle ear
Wavelength = pitch (20,000 Hz)
Low pitched, long wavelength stimulates region of cochlea farthest from the middle ear
Wavelength = pitch (20 Hz)
Pinna or auricle. It collects dirt and keeps the ear canal clean. Directs air vibrations down the auditory canal.
Outer ear is called....
Malleus (ossicles) transmit sound from the air to cochlea
Incus (ossicles) transmit sound from the air to cochlea
Stapes (ossicles) transmit sound from the air to cochlea
Tympanic cavity: membrane is the "ear drum"
Tensor tympani muscle
Moves in response to the vibrations coming from the middle ear via the oval window. Vibration from oval window causes fluid to move back and forth in the cochlea. "Hair cells" are set in motion and convert that motion into electric signals. There are 3 fluid filled chambers.
A reflex eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina during head movement by producing an eye movement in the direction opposite to head movement.
2 chambers: the saccule & utricle. Each contain maculae (cilia grouped together) For static equilibrium.
Consist of cilia grouped together in a gelatinous mass called the otolithic membrane weighted with CaCO3 stones called otoliths.
Cause cilia to bend during acceleration or gravity when head is bent
For dynamic equilibrium (angular acceleration). 3 ducts each at 90 degrees to each other. Filled with endolymph (mostly K+). Ampullae at base of each duct; crista ampullaris inside each ampullae.
Consists of hair cells buried in a mound of gelatinous membrane. Cupula is the "head" of the ampullaris. As the head turns the endolymph lags behind pushing the cupula and stimulating its hair cells.
Crista Ampullaris of Semicircular Ducts
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