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Terms in this set (37)
- Totality of an organisms chemical reaction
- Manage material/ energy resources
To break down
To build up
Requires free energy
Releases free energy
Is energy recycled?
Describe the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
- Quantity of Material: (Principle of conservation)
- Energy in the universe is constant
- Can be transformed/ transferred but NOT created or
- Organisms convert energy from one to another
- Quality: (Increase in entropy)
- During energy transformations energy neither
created or destroyed. But always a loss of usable
energy products typically small molecules and
energy. Energetically favorable.
Can energy be created?
Can energy be destroyed?
Can energy be converted from one form into another?
Yes, organisms convert energy from one to another.
What is entropy?
Measure of disorder or randomness
Is entropy increasing or decreasing in the universe or any closed system?
Increasing as the universe cools/ expands
What occurs during a chemical reaction?
Atoms in the reactants/ enzymes bond together differently to form one or more new products with different characteristics.
- Large proteins
- Have an active site that carry out specific activities
- Suffix: ase
- Organic catalysts, carbon containing organic
- Highly Specific
- Chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a
reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Energy of Activation
- Energy required to control reactant molecules, so
bonds break, supplied by heating form of thermal
- Reactant on which an enzyme works
- Material resulting from a chemical reaction
- Specific region of an enzyme that binds the substrate
and forms a pocket in which catalysts occurs
- Change the pH and the enzyme stops working.
Enzymes stop working when they are heated. Have
- Metal, ions, helpers, non protein molecule. Required
for the proper functioning of an enzyme.
- Can be permanently bound to the active site/ bind
loosely & reversibly along with the substrate during
- Assistants, not enzymes
- NAD, niacin (B3)
- FAD, riboflavin (B2)
- coA- pantothenate, be able to move molecules across
- Exceptional, plays slight role
- RNA molecule that catalyzes a specific chemical
- Functions similar to enzymes
Do enzymes typically occur in large or small amounts in cells?
Small amounts in the cell since they are not altered during their reactions and are highly specific for their substrate
Why are enzymes so specifically?
Highly specific both in reactions that they catalyze and in their choice of reactants which are called substrates. Enzymes usually catalyzes a single chemical reaction or a set of closely related reactions.
An Ion Cofactor
- Often classified as an inorganic substance that are
required for. Or increase the rate of catalysis.
- NAD- Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide
- FAD- Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
What occurs during an oxidation reaction?
- Reduced form, energy richer
- Examples: NADH + H + H
- Critical in our nutrition
What occurs during a reduction reaction?
- Reduction is gain of electrons
What is a metabolic pathway?
- Series of chemical reactions that either builds a
complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule
to simpler molecules. (anabolic pathway to catabolic)
Describe the chemistry of ATP and discuss the roll of ATP in cellular energetics.
ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.
Describe how an electron transport system (ETS) works.
- Starts with NADH/ FAD
- Goes through donates electrons via electron carriers
- As they go through pumps out protons H+
- Protons filter through ATP synthase
- Gets phosphorylated with ADP + Pi to form ATP
Describe the process of chemiosmosis.
- Under aerobic conditions with oxygen
- Uses energy stored form of a hydrogen ion gradient
across a membrane to drive cellular work
- Gather energy, nutrients for self (self fed)
- Examples: Photo- absorbs light energy
- Herbivores, carnivores
- To eat others
- Vegetation- Herbivores
- Meat, Fish- Carnivores
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