Period 6 APUSH review
Terms in this set (56)
John D. Rockefeller
American industrialist who controlled most of the oil industry. He supported Social Darwinism and later turned to philantrophy, founding the University of Chicago
Standard Oil Company
Oil company co founded by Rockefeller that owned 88% of oil fields by 1890.
Scottish immigrant who built a steel company in Pittsburgh. Controlled most of the steel industry and became a philantrophist, donating to universities, libraries, and other forms of education.
Dominant banker and financier who transformed business in the modern era.
Gospel of Wealth
Book written by Carnegie calling the wealthy to use their wealth for the poor and to improve society.
New York businessman who built his wealth through shipping and railroads, leading a rapidly growing railroad industry.
The belief that people were rich or poor because of natural selection and the survival of the fittest mentality
Governments being inactive and not interfering towards the free market. Literally "Hands Off"
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Act passed under President Benjamin Harrison prohibiting business activities deemed uncompetitive, allowing the government to investigate trusts.
Promoting the welfare of others and helping people with the generous use of money.
A population shift from rural to urban areas, changing society and correlating with the jobs available in large cities.
Apartment style high rises found in urban cities that were usually occupied by poor people.
Credit Mobilier scandal
Mobilier scandal in 1872 where Union Pacific Railroaders formed a construction company and hired themselves at inflated prices to build a railroad line. They then paid off congressmen with shares of the company's stock to keep the lid on it.
Panic of 1893
the worst economic downturn for the United States during the 19th Century; It was caused by overbuilding and over-speculation, labor disorders, and the ongoing agricultural depression; The Treasury was required to issue legal tender notes for the silver bullion that it had purchased; Owners of the paper currency would then present it for gold, and by law the notes had to be reissued; This process depleted the gold reserve in the Treasury to less than $100 million
Combining firms of the same business into one large corporation
Controlling and owning the entire process of your product from raw material to finish
Connected the country,creating a boom in production/economy, consumer demand for products, new inventions like the fridge cart on the train and allowing for circulation of people to new areas, leading to new settlements with higher populations
Women's Rights Movement
Movement for issues women faced, primarily focusing on women's suffrage.
Seneca Falls Convention
Meeting of important activists for women's rights and was used to discuss plans for reform.
Movement to outlaw alcohol
Chinese Exclusion Act
Act passed in 1882 banning future Chinese immigration because of rise of nativism, fear of immigrants, and the ideal that immigrants would gain a majority in culture and rights in America over whites.
The act of mixing ethnicities to integrate different peoples into American society forcibly, losing old cultures to adapt new American ones
Farmers struggle due to falling crop prices because of overproduction, overcharging on railroads for shipping produce, and the use of coins in sad of paper money. So Grange movement began focused on bettering farmers lives by reducing debts, advocating for advances in agriculture tools, and fixing railroad corruption.
Plessey v Fergusson
Court ruling that validated the separation of races, said it did not deprive blacks of separate institutions were equal
Farmers who worked on rented land with poor supplies and housing, often unable to make adequate money and relying on surplus crops.
Age nickname for period after Civil War through the turn of the century that refers to the success of the rich due to industrialization.
All currency circulating in America can be matched by equal value in terms of gold
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
Trusts occur when companies of same industry come as one
Between William Bryan and Mckinley-Mckinley (Republican) won because he had big party bosses behind him-Mark Hanna-large issue was silver
William Jennings Bryan
Bryan Democratic congressman who was an avid supporter of free silver, secretary state for Woodrow Wilson, presidential candidate
Cross of Gold
an impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold. He supported free silver.
This Republican candidate defeated William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential election. As a supporter of big business, he pushed for high protective tariffs. Under his leadership, the U.S. became an imperial world power. He was assassinated by an anarchist in 1901.
Homesteades given 160 acre parcels of land to settle the Midwest. Have 600,000 families, inclusive African Americans (exodusters)
People in America who wanted preservation of natural resources and stopping of the rapid destruction of these resources and land.
Californian preservationist, president of the Sierra Club; opposed to businesses taking land for econ. gains; gets govt. to set aside 35 mil. acres for a natl. forest
Battle of Little Big Horn
The last major battle between the Union and the Native Americans took place. The Sioux Indians, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, massacred the U.S. 7th Cavalry led by General Custer. Also known as Custer's Last Stand.
Battle of Wounded Knee
leader of the Sioux Indians killed during Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890. Leads to final war/battle between natives and Sioux Indians
Places Indians were contained on government secured land which was specifically for their living. Reduces, land, rights, and population to the measly pockets of land. Still Americans force themselves onto reservation land as well.
Dawes Severalty Act
-dismantled American Indian tribes
- set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres
- tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians
- attempted to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
New inventions, Better Transportation, larger Labor force, Factories flourished, lots of Natural resources
A group of people or leaders from different companies making an agreement to make prices high to lower competition
Knights of Labor
One of the largest and most important labor unions that accepted all workers. Worked to eliminate conflicts between labor and their managements
Aftermath of a bombing at Haymarket Square and origin of international day for workers
American Federation of Labor
A national federal labor union that consisted of many skilled workers
American Union Leader and founder of the Social Democracy of America
strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs
A strike that was started by steel workers. Resulted in a loss for the union, making it more difficult in the long run to unionize steelworkers
22nd and 24th president of the United States who intervened in the Pullman Strike and opposed free silver and imperialism.
Investigative reporters who made the public aware of certain issues
Muckraker who wrote about the history of the Standard Oil Company
short-lived political party that was not in favor of capitalism, banks, and railroads
Supported the labor movement.
Munn v Illinois
Supreme court case in which the decision was made to let the government have power to regulate private industries
St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois court case that overturned the ruling of Munn v. Illinois
Political party that flourished between 1904-1912 with Eugene Debs as the presidential candidate
The attitude in advocating for political reform focusing on advancements in economic development, social organization, and human order
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Unit 5 IDs
The Industrial Revolution and the Gilded Age (#9)