Psychology Test #4 General info
Terms in this set (24)
an infant's response toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around her mouth. The baby can suck, breathe, and swallow milk but doesn't get confused
a newborn will fling her arms and legs out and then rapidly closes them to the center
Swiss psychologist, observed and questioned younger children,was interested in knowing how a child develops in an intellectual way, discovered that younger children think in different ways.
Piaget Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Thought- object permanence, assimilation, accommodation
Pre-Operational- egocentrism, representational thought
Concrete Operational- conservation developed, classification abilities, can understand role reversals
Formal Operation- abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking, hypothetical
Psycho-Social Theory of Development - changes in personality across the entire life span, stages marked by a conflict we must overcome.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Kohlberg's Theory of Development
a cognitive developmental theory, assumes moral reasoning parallels the child's cognitive development and will be similar from one culture to another among individuals who have reached the same level of cognitive development
Pre-Conventional Level of Moral Reasoning
Punishment and obedience orientation
imprinting, geese are attached in a sudden virtually permanent way to the first thing they see. For humans, the first year is critical.
Surrogate Mothers> without a mother figure, there is serious emotional problems later in life for monkeys. Attachment is a close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver.
human baby becomes attached to the mother figure at about six months, becomes attached to others at around 18 months.
many rules, no negotiation, punishments over consequences, children have low self-esteem
basic needs not provided, child expected to raise themselves, few expectations in the home, little to no parenting, children have low happiness and low self-esteem
no consequences, uninvolved, more friend than parent, children struggle academically, children have behavioral problems, children report sadness
rule BUT exceptions are made, rules are explained, child feeling are taken into consideration, consequences rather than punishment, praise child, children happy and successful, grow up to be responsible adults who have no trouble expressing their opinion
reading a book can put you in another time or place
you can generate countless, limitless sentences using a finite set of words and rules
study of the sound system of language
basic units of speech, used to build morphemes
unit of sound that contains no smaller meaningful parts, from these we construct words
the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
(three blind mice vs. blind three mice)
meaning of words and sentences, structure of language
(beds do not talk)
rules of the language and rules for combining and using words
the use of appropriate conversation and the study of the rules underlying the use of language in social context
when children follow the rules of grammar too well