317 terms

Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology

study of structure of an organism
mass of protoplasm; basic unit of structure of all animals and plants
area of cell cytoplasm that contains two centrioles; important in reproduction of cell
located in nucleus & made of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein.
connective tissue
body tissue that connects, supports or binds body organs
fluid inside a cell; contains water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and salts
insufficient amounts of fluid in tissues
swelling; excell amount of fluid in tissues
endoplasmic recticulum
fine network of tubular structures in the cytoplasm of a cell; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and aids in the synthesis and storage of protein.
epithelial tissue
tissue that forms the skin and parts of the secreting glands, and that lines the body cavities.
the structures on chromosomes that carry inherited characteristics.
is the total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents.
golgi apparatus
that structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell.
those structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria and foreign matter.
the process of cell division that occurs in gametes or sex cells (ovum and spermatozoa)
those structures in a cell that provide energy and are involved in the metabolism of the cell.
process of asexual reproduction by which cells divide into two identical cells
muscle tissue
body tissue composed of fibers that produce movement
nerve tissue
body tissue that conducts or transmits impulses throughout the body.
the spherical body in the nucleus of a cell that is important in reproduction of the cell.
the structure in a cell that controls cell activities such as growth, metabolism and reproduction
body part made of tissues that have joined together to perform a special function
structures in the cytoplasm of a cell including the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus
study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes.
pinocytic vessicles
pocketlike folds in the cell membrane that allow large molecules such as proteins and fats to enter the cell.
thick, viscous substance that is the physical basis of all living things
study of the processes or functions of living organisms
stem cells
have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body's specialized cells and perform many different functions.
group of organs and other parts that work together to perform a certain function
a group of similar cells that join together to perform a particular function.
pouchlike structures found throughout the cytoplasm that have a vacuolar membrane with the same structure as the cell membrane. they are filled with a watery substance, stored food or waste products.
abdominal cavity
is divided into an upper and lower part. The upper contains the stomach, small intestine, most of large intestine, appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen. the lower contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs and last part of the large intestine.
abdominal regions
divisions of the abdominal cavity
means before or in front of
body cavities
spaces within the body that contain vital organs. (dorsal/posterior cavity and ventral/anterior cavity)
body planes
are imaginary lines drawn through the body at various parts to separate the body into sections
buccal cavity
for the teeth and tongue
body parts located near the sacral region of the spinal column (also known as the "tail")
means body parts located near the head
cranial cavity
contains the brain
body parts distant from the point of reference
body parts on the back of the body
dorsal cavity
one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body, divided into 2 sections (cranial & spinal)
frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body into a front section and a back section.
body parts below other parts
body parts away from the midline
body parts close to the midline or plane
midsagittal (median) plane
divides the body into right and left sides
nasal cavity
for the nose structures
orbital cavity
for the eyes
pelvic cavity
(lower abdominal cavity) contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs and last part of large intestine
towards the back; behind
body parts close to the point of reference
spinal cavity
contains the spinal cord
body parts above other parts
thoracic cavity
is located in the chest and contains the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart and large blood vessels
transverse plane
is a horizontal plane that divides the body into a top half and a bottom half.
body parts in front of the plane or on the front of the body
ventral cavity
larger than the dorsal cavity. It is separated into 2 distinct cavities by the dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm.
a person with an absence of color pigments
baldness, a permanent loss of hair on the scalp.
to contract or narrow; to make smaller
areas of dried pus and blood, commonly called scabs
a bluish discoloration of the skin, lips or nail beds caused by insufficient oxygen
also called corium or "true skin". has framework of elastic connective tissue and contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves,involuntary muscle, sweat and oil glands and hair follicles.
enlarge or expand; to make bigger
the outermost layer of skin made up of 5 smaller layers by no blood vessels or nerve cells.
is a reddish color of the skin that can be caused by either burns or a congestion of blood in vessels
integumentary system
or skin, has been called both a membrane, because it covers the body, and an organ because it contains several kinds of tissues.
a yellow discoloration of the skin, can indicate bile in the blood as a result of liver or gallbladder disease; or occurs in conjunction with certain diseases that involve destruction of red blood cells
(macular rash) flat spots on the skin, such as freckles
a brownish black pigment produced in the epidermis by specialized cells called melanocytes
(papular rash) firm, raised areas such as pimples and the eruptions seen in some stages of chickenpox and syphilis
pus-filled sacs such as those seen in acne, or pimples
sebaceous glands
are oil glands that open onto hair follicles. They produce sebum, an oil that keeps the skin and hair from becoming dry and brittle.
subcutaneous fascia (hypodermis)
the innermost layer of skin. It is made of elastic and fibrous connective tissue and adipose (fatty) tissue and connects skin to underlying muscles.
sudoriferous glands
are sweat glands. They are coiled tubes that extend through the dermis and open on the surface of skin at pores.
a deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis; may cause periodic bleeding and the formation of scars
blisters, or fluid-filled sacs, such as those seen in chickenpox
itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; hives and insect bites are examples
appendicular skeleton
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
axial skeleton
forms the trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs and breastbone.
bones of the wrist
is the spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain.
the long shaft or middle section of a long bone
is a membrane that lines the medullary canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact. It also produces some bone growth.
the end or head at the extremity of a long bone
thigh bone of the leg; the longest and strongest bone of the body
slender smaller bone of the lower leg that attaches to the proximal end of the tibia
spaces in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs. they are made of membrane and cartilage and turn to solid bone at 18 months of age.
are openings in bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone.
long bone of the upper arm
are areas where two or more bones join together.
connective tissue bands which help hold long bones together at joints
medullary canal
is a cavity in the diaphysis filled with yellow marrow
palm of hand; bone on hand between wrist and each finger.
bone of foot between instep and toe
os coxae
hipbone which join with the sacrum on the dorsal part of the body.
a tough membrane covering out of bone. It contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and osteoblasts, special cells that form new bone tissue.
bones of the fingers and toes
red marrow
is found in certain bones, such as the vertebrae, ribs, sternum and cranium, and in the proximal ends of humerus and femur. it produces red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets (thrombocytes) and some white blood cells (leukocytes)
or (costae). They attach to the thoracic vertebrae on the dorsal surface of the body.
shoulder blade or bones
are air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice. They are lined with mucous membranes.
skeletal system
is made of organs called bones. an adult human has 206 bones.
or breastbone, is the last bone of the axial skeleton
are areas where the cranial bones have joined together
one of seven bones that form the instep of the foot; ankle
the larger weight-bearing bone between the ankle and the knee commonly called the shin bone
larger long bone on forearm between wrist and elbow
The 26 bones of the spinal column
yellow marrow
is mainly a storage area for fat cells. It also contains cells that form leukocytes (white blood cells)
long bone on forearm between wrist and elbow
.moving a body part toward the midline
cardiac muscle
forms the walls of the heart and contracts to circulate blood
moving in a circle at a joint or moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end remains stationary; such as swinging an arm in a circle
to become short; draw together
muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves contract or become short and thick, which causes movement
a severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in bending of a joint.
allows muscle to return to its original shape after it has contracted or stretched
irritability, the ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nerve impulse
the ability to be stretched
increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening a body part
a tough, sheetlike membrane that covers and protects the tissue
decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a body part
end or area of muscle that moves when muscle contracts
means function without conscious thought or control
muscle tone
the state of partial contraction providing a state of readiness to act
muscular system
system made up of more than 600 muscles
end or area of a muscle that remains stationary when muscle contracts
turning a body part around its own axis; such as turning head from side to side
skeletal muscle
attached to bones and causes body movement
are strong, tough, fibrous connective-tissue cords.
visceral (smooth) muscle
is found in the internal organs of the body, such as those of digestive and respiratory systems, and blood vessels and eyes
under one's control
moving a body part away from the midline
is a mass of nerve tissue well protected by membranes and the cranium, or skull
central nervous system (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
the section below the back of the cerebrum; responsible for muscle coordination, balance, posture and muscle tone.
cerebrospinal fluid
a clear, colorless fluid in the ventricles of brain. this fluid circulates continually between ventricles and through subarachnoid space. serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord; also carries nutrients to some parts of brain and spinal cord and helps remove metabolic waste.
the largest and highest section of brain; responsible for reasoning thought, memory, judgment, speech, sensation, sight, smell, hear and voluntary body movement.
the section located between the cerebrum and midbrain; containing two structures - the thalamus and hypothalamus
regulates and controls the autonomic nervous system, temperature, appetite, water balance, sleep and blood vessel constriction and dilation. It is also involved in emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection
medulla oblongata
the lowest part of the brainstem; connects with the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood pressure
are three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. Dura mater - thick, tough outer layer; arachnoid membrane - middle layer is delicate and weblike, loosely attached to other meninges to allow space for fluid flow between layers; pia mater - innermost layer, is closely attached to brain and spinal cord, contains blood vessels that nourish nerve tissue.
the section located below the cerebrum at the top of the brainstem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes
are a combination of many nerve fibers located outside the brain and spinal cord.
nervous system
is a complex, highly organized system that coordinates all the activities of the body. It enables the body to respond and adapt to changes that occur both inside and outside the body.
(or nerve cell) the basic structural unit of the nervous system
a division of the autonomic nervous system
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
consists of the nerves and has two divisions: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
the section located below the midbrain and in the brainstem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain; for certain reflex actions including chewing, tasting and saliva production; and for assisting with respiration.
somatic nervous system
carries messages between the CNS and the body; consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves & their branches and 31 pairs of spinal nerves & their branches.
spinal cord
a column of nervous tissue continues down from the medulla oblongata and ends at the first or second lumbar vertebrae. Responsible for many reflex actions and for carrying sensory message up to brain and motor messages from brain to nerves that go to muscles and glands.
that division of the autonomic nervous system that allows body to respond to emergencies and stress; also to understand and attempt tosolve the problems of another
acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum. it also allows conscious recognition of pain and temperature.
autonomic nervous system
contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which work together to control involuntary body functions and helps body to react in times of emergency
hollow spaces that connect with each other and with the space under the arachnoid membrane (subarachnoid space)
auditory canal
a canal or tube in which special glands produce cerumen, a was that protects the air; a canal through which sound waves travel until they reach the eardrum.
also called pinna; outer part of the ear.
choroid coat
the middle layer of the eye which is interlaced with many blood vessels that nourish the eyes.
shaped like a snail's shell, contains delicate, hairlike cells.
a mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front of the eye to provide additional protection and lubrication.
is a circular, transparent part of the front of the sclera which allows rays to enter the eye.
eustachian tube
connects the middle ear to the pharynx or throat.
is the colored portion of the eye, located behind the cornea on the front of the choroid coat.
lacrimal glands
located in the eye. Produce tears, which moisten and cleanse the eye.
is a circular structure located behind the pupis and suspended in position by ligaments
organ of corti
a receptor of sound waves. it transmits impulses from sound waves to the auditory nerves
small bones, especially the three smaller bones of the inner ear that amplify and transmit sound waves
is elastic cartilage covered by skin.
the opening in the center of the iris.
(bends) light rays so the rays focus on the retina
the innermost layer of the eye. It is made of many layers of nerve cells which transmit light impulses to the optic nerve.
the outermost layer which is the tough connective tissue
semicircular canals
located in inner ear. Contain a liquid and delicate, hairlike cells that bend when the liquid moves with head and body movements.
tympanic membrane
acts as the entrance to the two other parts of the inner ear; small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
vitreous humor
is the jellylike substance that fills the area behind the lens; helps maintain shape of eyeball and refracts light rays.
acqueous humor
is a clear, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and iris; helps maintain forward curvature of eyeball and refracts light rays
aortic valve
is located between the left ventricle and the aorta, the largest artery in the body. It closes when the left ventricle is finished contracting, allowing blood to flow into the aorta and preventing blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.
abnormal heart rhythms and can be mild to life-threatening.
carry blood away from the heart.
fluid that circulates through the vessels in the body to carry substances to all body parts; it is made up of plasma and blood cells.
connect arterioles with venules, the smallest veins. They are located in close proximity to almost every cell in the body; have thin walls that contain only one layer of cells. Thin walls allow oxygen and nutrients to pass thru to the cells and allow carbon dioxide and metabolic waste from cells to capillaries.
circulatory system
also known as cardiovascular system or transportation system of the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. transports blood and nutrients to body cells and carbon dioxide and metabolic materials away from body cells.
period of relaxation of the heart
is a smooth layer of cells that lines the inside of the heart and is continuous with the inside of blood vessels. It allows for smooth flow of blood.
red blood cells (RBC). produced in red bone marrow;
the iron-containing protein of the red blood cells; serves to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
left atrium
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
left ventricle
receives blood from the left atrium and pumps the blood into the aorta for transport to the body cells.
white blood cells (WBC)
mitral valve
is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. It closes when the left ventricle is contracting, allowing blood to flow into the aorta & preventing blood from flowing back into the left atrium.
muscle layer of heart
is a double-layered membrane, or sac, that covers the outside of the heart.
liquid portion of blood
pulmonary valve
is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, a blood vessel that carries blood to the lungs. It closes when the right ventricle has finished contracting, preventing blood from flowing back into the right ventricle.
right atrium
receives blood as it returns from the body cells
right ventricle
receives blood from the right atrium and pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery,which carries the blood to the lungs for oxygen.
is a muscular wall that separates the heart into a right side and a left side. It prevents blood from moving between the right and left sides of the heart.
period of work or contraction of the heart
also called platelets; they are important for the clotting process, which stops bleeding.
tricuspid valve
is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It closes when the right ventricle contracts,allowing blood to flow to the lungs, and preventing blood from flowing back into the right atrium.
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. venules join together to form veins; which joins to form the 2 largest veins; the superior-brings blood from upper part of body, and inferior-brings blood from lower part of body. both vena cava drain into right atrium
specialized lymphatic capillary that picks up digested fats or lipids in the small intestine and transports them to the thoracic duct
fluid formed in body tissues and circulated in the lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
a round body of lymph tissue that filters lymph
lymphatic capillaries
small, open-ended lymph vessels act like drainpipes. They pick up lymph at tissues throughout the body.
lymphatic system
consists of lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphatic tissue. Works with circulatory system to remove waste and excess fluids from the tissues
lymphatic vessels
thin-walled vessels that carry lymph from tissues
right lymphatic duct
is the short tube that receives all of the purified lymph from the right side of the head and neck, right chest and right arm. It empties into the right subclavian vein, returning purified lymph to the blood.
ductless gland below the diaphragm and in the upper-left quadrant quadrant of the abdomen; serves to form, store and filter blood
thoracic duct
main lymph duct of the body; drains lymph from the lymphatic vessels into the left subclavian vein
organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty
mass of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx (throat) and mouth
cisterna chyli
an enlarged pouchlike structureat the start of the thoracic duct; a storage area for purified lymph before this lymph returns to the bloodstream.
microscopic air sacs in the lungs
small branches of the bronchi; carry air in the lungs
cellular respiration
process by which cells use oxygen and nutrients to produce energy, water and carbon dioxide
hairlike projections
leaf-shaped structure that closes over the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering respiratory tract.
the expulsion of air from the lungs; breathing out air
external respiration
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream.
breathing in; taking air into the lungs
internal respiration
is the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the tissue cells and the bloodstream.
voice box, located between the pharynx and trachea, has 9 layers of cartilage. It has 2 folds called vocal cords. the opening between vocal cords is the glottis.
organs of respiration located in the thoracic cavity
nasal cavities
space between the cranium and the root of the mouth. it is lined with mucous membrane. As air enters cavities, it is warmed, filtered, moistened.
nasal septum
bony and cartilaginous partition that separates the nasal cavity into two section
the projection in the center of the face; the organ for smelling and breathing
the throat
a serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity
the process of taking in oxygen (inspiration) and expelling carbon dioxide (expiration) by way of the lungs and air passages
respiratory system
consists of the lungs and air passages. Responsible for taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
cavity or air space in a bone
windpipe; air tube from the larynx to the bronchi
two main branches of the trachea; air tubes to and from the lungs
process of breathing
external opening of the anal canal, or rectum
the large intestine
digestive system
also known as the gastrointestinal system, is responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be taken into the bloodstream and used by body cells and tissues.
first part of the small intestine; connects the pylorus of the stomach and the jejunum
tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
small sac near the liver; concentrates and stores bile
hard palate
bony structure that forms the root of the mouth
final section of small intestine; connects the jejunum and large intestine
the middle section of the small intestine; connects the duodenum and the ileum
large intestine
the final section of the alimentary canal 5 feet long 2 inches in diameter.
largest gland in the body; located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen; two of its main functions are excreting bile and storing glycogen; store iron , produces heparin which prevents clotting; fibrinogen and prothrombin which aid in clotting; cholesterol. it detoxifies substances and destroys bacteria
oral cavity; opening to the digestive tract, or alimentary canal
gland that is dorsal to the stomach; secretes insulin and digestive juices
rhythmic, wavelike motion of involuntary muscles
pertaining to or the lower part of the large intestine, the temporary storage area for indigestibles
salivary glands
glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
small intestine
a coiled section of the alimentary canal 20 feet long and 1 inch in diameter; site of most absorption of nutrients
soft palate
tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth; separates the mouth from the nasopharynx
enlarged section of the alimentary canal, between the esophagus and the small intestine; serves as an organ of digestion
structures in the mouth that physically break down food by chewing and grinding
muscular organ of the mouth; aids in speech, swallowing, and taste
vermiform appendix
a small projection of the small intestine
tiny projections from a surface ; in the small intestine, projections that aid in the absorption of nutrients
alimentary canal
the digestive tract from the esophagus to the rectum
membranous sac or storage area for a secretion (gallbladder); also, the vesicle that acts as the reservoir for urine.
the outer layer of an organ or structure, such as kidney; contains most of the nephrons
excretory system
another name for urinary system
microscopic cluster of capillaries in Bowman's capsule of the nephron in the kidney.
a notched or indented area of the kidney through which the ureter, nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels enter and leave the kidney.
a constant state of natural balance within the body
bean-shaped organ that excretes urine; located high and in back of the abdominal cavity
inner, or central, portion of an organ
structural and functional unit of the kidney; aid in production of urine.
renal pelvis
a funnel-shaped structure that is the first section of the ureter.
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body
urinary meatus
external opening of the urethra
urinary system
also known as the excretory system, is responsible for removing certain wastes and excess water from the body and for maintaining the body's acid-base balance.
the fluid excreted by the kidney
to empty the bladder; urinate
Bowman's capsule
part of the renal corpuscle in the kidney; picks up substances filtered from the blood by the glomerulus
adrenal glands
(suprarenal glands) located above each kidney.
chemical substance secreted by an organ or gland
endocrine glands or gonads that produces hormones and the female sex cell, or ovum
gland that is dorsal to the stomach; secretes insulin and digestive juices
parathyroid glands
four small glands located behind and on the thyroid gland; regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
pineal body
small structure attached to the roof of the third ventricle in the brain.
pituitary gland
(master gland) small, rounded endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes
temporary endocrine gland created during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus; the afterbirth
gonads or endocrine glands that are located in the scrotum of the male and that produce sperm and male hormones
organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty
thyroid gland
endocrine gland that is located in the neck and regulates body metabolism and control calcium in the blood..
endocrine system
consists of a group of ductless (without tubes) glands that secrete substances(hormones) directly into the bloodstream.
Bartholin's glands
two small mucous glands near the vaginal opening
Cowper's (bulbourethral) glands
the pair of small mucous glands near the male urethra
ejaculatory ducts
in the male, duct or tube from the seminal vesicle to the urethra
mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus
tightly coiled tube in the scrotal sac; connects the testes with the vas or ductus deferens
fallopian tubes
oviduct; in the female, passageway for the ova(egg) from the ovary to uterus
conception; impregnation of the ovum by the sperm
labia majora
two large folds of adipose tissue lying on each side of the vulva in the female; hairy outer lips
labia minora
two folds of membrand lying inside the labia majora; hairless inner lips
external sex organ of the male
region between the vagina and anus in the male
prostate gland
in the male, gland near the urethra; contracts during ejaculation to prevent urine from leaving the bladder
reproductive system scrotum
produces new life.
mammary, or milk, gland located on the upper part of the front surface of the body
double pouch containing the testes and epididymis in the male individual
seminal vesicles
one of two saclike structures behind the bladder and connected to the vas deferens in the male; secretes thick, viscous fluid for semen
muscular, hollow organ that serves as the organ of menstruation and the area for development of the fetus in the female body
tube from the uterus to outside the body in a female individual
vas (ductus) deferens
also called ductless deferens; the tube that carries sperm and semen from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct in the male body
small space of cavity at the beginning of a canal
external female genitalia; includes the labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris
cell membrane
outer protective covering of cells; semi-permeable allowing some substances to pass
Cell membrane
outer protective covering of cell; semi-permeable