fine network of tubular structures in the cytoplasm of a cell; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and aids in the synthesis and storage of protein.
tissue that forms the skin and parts of the secreting glands, and that lines the body cavities.
that structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell.
those structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that contain digestive enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria and foreign matter.
those structures in a cell that provide energy and are involved in the metabolism of the cell.
the spherical body in the nucleus of a cell that is important in reproduction of the cell.
the structure in a cell that controls cell activities such as growth, metabolism and reproduction
structures in the cytoplasm of a cell including the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus
study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes.
pocketlike folds in the cell membrane that allow large molecules such as proteins and fats to enter the cell.
have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body's specialized cells and perform many different functions.
pouchlike structures found throughout the cytoplasm that have a vacuolar membrane with the same structure as the cell membrane. they are filled with a watery substance, stored food or waste products.
is divided into an upper and lower part. The upper contains the stomach, small intestine, most of large intestine, appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen. the lower contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs and last part of the large intestine.
spaces within the body that contain vital organs. (dorsal/posterior cavity and ventral/anterior cavity)
are imaginary lines drawn through the body at various parts to separate the body into sections
one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body, divided into 2 sections (cranial & spinal)
(lower abdominal cavity) contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs and last part of large intestine
is located in the chest and contains the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart and large blood vessels
larger than the dorsal cavity. It is separated into 2 distinct cavities by the dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm.
also called corium or "true skin". has framework of elastic connective tissue and contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves,involuntary muscle, sweat and oil glands and hair follicles.
the outermost layer of skin made up of 5 smaller layers by no blood vessels or nerve cells.
is a reddish color of the skin that can be caused by either burns or a congestion of blood in vessels
or skin, has been called both a membrane, because it covers the body, and an organ because it contains several kinds of tissues.
a yellow discoloration of the skin, can indicate bile in the blood as a result of liver or gallbladder disease; or occurs in conjunction with certain diseases that involve destruction of red blood cells
(papular rash) firm, raised areas such as pimples and the eruptions seen in some stages of chickenpox and syphilis
are oil glands that open onto hair follicles. They produce sebum, an oil that keeps the skin and hair from becoming dry and brittle.
subcutaneous fascia (hypodermis)
the innermost layer of skin. It is made of elastic and fibrous connective tissue and adipose (fatty) tissue and connects skin to underlying muscles.
are sweat glands. They are coiled tubes that extend through the dermis and open on the surface of skin at pores.
a deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis; may cause periodic bleeding and the formation of scars
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
forms the trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs and breastbone.
is a membrane that lines the medullary canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact. It also produces some bone growth.
spaces in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs. they are made of membrane and cartilage and turn to solid bone at 18 months of age.
a tough membrane covering out of bone. It contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and osteoblasts, special cells that form new bone tissue.
is found in certain bones, such as the vertebrae, ribs, sternum and cranium, and in the proximal ends of humerus and femur. it produces red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets (thrombocytes) and some white blood cells (leukocytes)
are air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice. They are lined with mucous membranes.
is mainly a storage area for fat cells. It also contains cells that form leukocytes (white blood cells)
moving in a circle at a joint or moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end remains stationary; such as swinging an arm in a circle
muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves contract or become short and thick, which causes movement
visceral (smooth) muscle
is found in the internal organs of the body, such as those of digestive and respiratory systems, and blood vessels and eyes
the section below the back of the cerebrum; responsible for muscle coordination, balance, posture and muscle tone.
a clear, colorless fluid in the ventricles of brain. this fluid circulates continually between ventricles and through subarachnoid space. serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord; also carries nutrients to some parts of brain and spinal cord and helps remove metabolic waste.
the largest and highest section of brain; responsible for reasoning thought, memory, judgment, speech, sensation, sight, smell, hear and voluntary body movement.
the section located between the cerebrum and midbrain; containing two structures - the thalamus and hypothalamus
regulates and controls the autonomic nervous system, temperature, appetite, water balance, sleep and blood vessel constriction and dilation. It is also involved in emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection
the lowest part of the brainstem; connects with the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood pressure
are three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. Dura mater - thick, tough outer layer; arachnoid membrane - middle layer is delicate and weblike, loosely attached to other meninges to allow space for fluid flow between layers; pia mater - innermost layer, is closely attached to brain and spinal cord, contains blood vessels that nourish nerve tissue.
the section located below the cerebrum at the top of the brainstem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes
is a complex, highly organized system that coordinates all the activities of the body. It enables the body to respond and adapt to changes that occur both inside and outside the body.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
consists of the nerves and has two divisions: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
the section located below the midbrain and in the brainstem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain; for certain reflex actions including chewing, tasting and saliva production; and for assisting with respiration.
somatic nervous system
carries messages between the CNS and the body; consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves & their branches and 31 pairs of spinal nerves & their branches.
a column of nervous tissue continues down from the medulla oblongata and ends at the first or second lumbar vertebrae. Responsible for many reflex actions and for carrying sensory message up to brain and motor messages from brain to nerves that go to muscles and glands.
that division of the autonomic nervous system that allows body to respond to emergencies and stress; also to understand and attempt tosolve the problems of another
acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum. it also allows conscious recognition of pain and temperature.
autonomic nervous system
contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which work together to control involuntary body functions and helps body to react in times of emergency
hollow spaces that connect with each other and with the space under the arachnoid membrane (subarachnoid space)
a canal or tube in which special glands produce cerumen, a was that protects the air; a canal through which sound waves travel until they reach the eardrum.
the middle layer of the eye which is interlaced with many blood vessels that nourish the eyes.
a mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front of the eye to provide additional protection and lubrication.
is a circular, transparent part of the front of the sclera which allows rays to enter the eye.
organ of corti
a receptor of sound waves. it transmits impulses from sound waves to the auditory nerves
small bones, especially the three smaller bones of the inner ear that amplify and transmit sound waves
the innermost layer of the eye. It is made of many layers of nerve cells which transmit light impulses to the optic nerve.
located in inner ear. Contain a liquid and delicate, hairlike cells that bend when the liquid moves with head and body movements.
acts as the entrance to the two other parts of the inner ear; small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
is the jellylike substance that fills the area behind the lens; helps maintain shape of eyeball and refracts light rays.
is a clear, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and iris; helps maintain forward curvature of eyeball and refracts light rays
is located between the left ventricle and the aorta, the largest artery in the body. It closes when the left ventricle is finished contracting, allowing blood to flow into the aorta and preventing blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.
fluid that circulates through the vessels in the body to carry substances to all body parts; it is made up of plasma and blood cells.
connect arterioles with venules, the smallest veins. They are located in close proximity to almost every cell in the body; have thin walls that contain only one layer of cells. Thin walls allow oxygen and nutrients to pass thru to the cells and allow carbon dioxide and metabolic waste from cells to capillaries.
also known as cardiovascular system or transportation system of the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. transports blood and nutrients to body cells and carbon dioxide and metabolic materials away from body cells.
is a smooth layer of cells that lines the inside of the heart and is continuous with the inside of blood vessels. It allows for smooth flow of blood.
the iron-containing protein of the red blood cells; serves to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
receives blood from the left atrium and pumps the blood into the aorta for transport to the body cells.
is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. It closes when the left ventricle is contracting, allowing blood to flow into the aorta & preventing blood from flowing back into the left atrium.
is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, a blood vessel that carries blood to the lungs. It closes when the right ventricle has finished contracting, preventing blood from flowing back into the right ventricle.
receives blood from the right atrium and pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery,which carries the blood to the lungs for oxygen.
is a muscular wall that separates the heart into a right side and a left side. It prevents blood from moving between the right and left sides of the heart.
also called platelets; they are important for the clotting process, which stops bleeding.
is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It closes when the right ventricle contracts,allowing blood to flow to the lungs, and preventing blood from flowing back into the right atrium.
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. venules join together to form veins; which joins to form the 2 largest veins; the superior-brings blood from upper part of body, and inferior-brings blood from lower part of body. both vena cava drain into right atrium
specialized lymphatic capillary that picks up digested fats or lipids in the small intestine and transports them to the thoracic duct
small, open-ended lymph vessels act like drainpipes. They pick up lymph at tissues throughout the body.
consists of lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphatic tissue. Works with circulatory system to remove waste and excess fluids from the tissues
right lymphatic duct
is the short tube that receives all of the purified lymph from the right side of the head and neck, right chest and right arm. It empties into the right subclavian vein, returning purified lymph to the blood.
ductless gland below the diaphragm and in the upper-left quadrant quadrant of the abdomen; serves to form, store and filter blood
main lymph duct of the body; drains lymph from the lymphatic vessels into the left subclavian vein
organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty
an enlarged pouchlike structureat the start of the thoracic duct; a storage area for purified lymph before this lymph returns to the bloodstream.
process by which cells use oxygen and nutrients to produce energy, water and carbon dioxide
leaf-shaped structure that closes over the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering respiratory tract.
is the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the tissue cells and the bloodstream.
voice box, located between the pharynx and trachea, has 9 layers of cartilage. It has 2 folds called vocal cords. the opening between vocal cords is the glottis.
space between the cranium and the root of the mouth. it is lined with mucous membrane. As air enters cavities, it is warmed, filtered, moistened.
the process of taking in oxygen (inspiration) and expelling carbon dioxide (expiration) by way of the lungs and air passages
consists of the lungs and air passages. Responsible for taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
also known as the gastrointestinal system, is responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be taken into the bloodstream and used by body cells and tissues.
largest gland in the body; located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen; two of its main functions are excreting bile and storing glycogen; store iron , produces heparin which prevents clotting; fibrinogen and prothrombin which aid in clotting; cholesterol. it detoxifies substances and destroys bacteria
pertaining to or the lower part of the large intestine, the temporary storage area for indigestibles
a coiled section of the alimentary canal 20 feet long and 1 inch in diameter; site of most absorption of nutrients
enlarged section of the alimentary canal, between the esophagus and the small intestine; serves as an organ of digestion
tiny projections from a surface ; in the small intestine, projections that aid in the absorption of nutrients
membranous sac or storage area for a secretion (gallbladder); also, the vesicle that acts as the reservoir for urine.
a notched or indented area of the kidney through which the ureter, nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels enter and leave the kidney.
also known as the excretory system, is responsible for removing certain wastes and excess water from the body and for maintaining the body's acid-base balance.
part of the renal corpuscle in the kidney; picks up substances filtered from the blood by the glomerulus
four small glands located behind and on the thyroid gland; regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
(master gland) small, rounded endocrine gland at the base of the brain; regulates function of other endocrine glands and body processes
temporary endocrine gland created during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus; the afterbirth
gonads or endocrine glands that are located in the scrotum of the male and that produce sperm and male hormones
organ in the upper part of the chest, lymphatic tissue and endocrine gland that atrophies at puberty
endocrine gland that is located in the neck and regulates body metabolism and control calcium in the blood..
consists of a group of ductless (without tubes) glands that secrete substances(hormones) directly into the bloodstream.
tightly coiled tube in the scrotal sac; connects the testes with the vas or ductus deferens
two large folds of adipose tissue lying on each side of the vulva in the female; hairy outer lips
in the male, gland near the urethra; contracts during ejaculation to prevent urine from leaving the bladder
one of two saclike structures behind the bladder and connected to the vas deferens in the male; secretes thick, viscous fluid for semen
muscular, hollow organ that serves as the organ of menstruation and the area for development of the fetus in the female body
vas (ductus) deferens
also called ductless deferens; the tube that carries sperm and semen from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct in the male body