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US History II - Chapter 26 !!!!
Terms in this set (39)
act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops
GI Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country.
A deal that created projects to create jobs, build public housing, and end racial discrimination. South Democrats and Republicans worked together to stop his projects.
1950's Economic Boom
greatest in american history, only nation with standing fully industrialized economy (economic competitors destroyed in WW2); pent up demand for things; huge automobile industry
a law that outlawed only hiring union members. rolled back some of the rights that labor union had gained during the New Deal.
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Q! -How did the nation experience recovery and economic prosperity after World War II?
The GI Bill of Rights and a strong demand for consumer good - coupled with defense spending on the Korean War and increased foreign demand for U.S. goods - greatly improved the economy. The US became the richest country in the world.
The hardships of the previous fifteen years of war and depression were replaced by rising living standards, increased opportunities, and a newly emerging American culture confident of its future and place in the world.
Q - Why was the government willing to give billions of dollars in assistance to returning World War II veterans?
They risked their lives.They had to come back to joblessness.Some had left college to fight and they needed to finish college.Some had give up 4 years of their lives when they could have been safe at home going to college.They deserved it and the warriors of today continue to deserve their GI benefits.
The government was willing to spend billions of dollars for WWII vets for training and to help them become home owners. The training would help them secure jobs upon return to civilian life.
Q - After the war, Truman faced challenges with labor unions. Would you consider Truman as working for or against organized labor? Explain.
Truman was originally working for organized labor. After coal miners went on strike in the spring of 1946, Truman threatened to draft the miners into the Army if they did not return to work, or use members of the Army to replace the workers. I think he wanted to support them for the idealism behind them, but at the same time, it had to be a give and take and if they wouldn't work - they had to know they could be replaced.
Q - How did the baby boom impact the postwar economy?
The baby boom affected the economy in a positive way. People moved to the suburbs, and the housing market was in a good position. The Baby Boom created a demand for.... day care teachers bigger cars bigger houses nurses/doctors, more clothes more electronics more necessities for babies, more consumers
Interstate Highway Act
legistation passed by Congress in 1956 that authorized funds to build 41,000 miles of highway consisting of multilane expressways that would connect the nation's major cities.
name given to southern and western states
business that provide services such as healthcare, law, retail, banking or insurance
a business that allows a company to distribute its products or services through retail outlets owned by independent operators. (Holiday Inn - founder was frustrated finding good hotels so he started his own chain)
companies that produced and sold their goods and services all over the world and established branches abroad.
California Master Plan
called for three tiers of higher education: research universities, state colleges, and community colleges, all of which were to be accessible to all of the state's citizens.
system was designed to make higher education more accessible and affordable to average citizens by creating three tiers of higher education
Q! - What social and economic factors changed American life during the 1950's?
Throughout the 1950s both unemployment and inflation remained low. At this time, though the war was over, many women kept their careers. Americans during the 1950s were on the move. The population was shifting from the country to the city, then to the suburbs. More people moved from the Northeast and Midwestern sections of the country to the West and the South. The United States was also on the brink of a major civil rights movement in the 1950s.
Q - What were the benefits of the Interstate Highway Act? What were the disadvantages?
The benefits from the US Interstate Highway has enriched the quality of life for virtually every American, letting them vacation in new destinations such as Las Vegas. Walt Disney opened Disney World in California and many migrated to the sunbelt... The Interstate Highways also allow for quickly moving people in an emergency (like a hurricane) and it allowed the National Guard and the military to get to the disaster area quickly to provide aide.
The disadvantages would be that highways took time to build, created congestion and pollution and could be expensive to operate.
Q - How did the sunbelt states benefit from the growth of the automobile and air conditioning industries?
With the Interstate Highway Act, people were able to easily travel in their new automobiles over state lines. Many sought out the warmer states in the south and the west, which were known as the sunbelt states. The invention of air conditioning allowed for people to enjoy these states year round, particularly in the summer months when it would have otherwise been too hot.
a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
median family income
Average family income;
during the 1950's this figure jumped from $3,319 to $5,417, giving average Americans almost twice as much as they had in the 1920's.
a family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner
Benjamin Spock was a pediatrician who wrote Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care in 1946, supporting traditional family roles and advocating the concept of "mothering" to postwar families. He asserted that women belong in the home as primary caregivers to shape their children into normal and happy adults. His best-selling book and popular instruction reflected the postwar change in middle class culture to focus on families, suburban living, the baby boom, and consumerism in an affluent society. Rising marriage and birth rates along with a surge in spending after World War II removed fears of another economic depression and led to an emphasis on more traditional sex roles, with experts like Spock advising women in being successful mothers and keepers of the home.
music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s
1950s; a symbol of the rock-and-roll movement of the 50s when teenagers began to form their own subculture, dismaying to conservative parents; created a youth culture that ridiculed phony and pretentious middle-class Americans, celebrated uninhibited sexuality and spontaneity; foreshadowed the coming counterculture of the 1960s
Q! - How did popular culture and family life change during the 1950's?
The main cause of the change was the end of the Second WW in 1945.
Women started to work outside of the house as all the men were off to war. This was what got women into the working world. Also, women started to wear pants, at least in part because of their working. They also began to get short hair cuts.
People had more money than their parents had had..At least a part of this was the housing boom, caused by the big population increase and the gradual separation of living arrangements from extended to nuclear families.
Cars became common place, not just for the rich.
Communications improved. Most people could afford phones, radios and tvs.
Most families had a phone. Before the war, there was probably just one phone in the neighborhood.
Air travel began to make moving around faster, and so the world started to become "smaller."
The Boomer generation began. This just means that the guys coming home from the war had not been around to start families, and so a lot of babies were born during the fifties.
Music was influenced by the new affluence. Elvis started out during the fifties.
More women began seeking higher education.
People in general, started to become more able to access information from other cultures and places and started to become more outwardly interested in what other people were doing in other places.
Hollywood began to have a real power in the world, and many new 'stars were born." because people had money to go to the movies..
The generations became more independent, and the influence of extended families began to diminish.
A new affluence allowed more people to have more education that the previous generations.
Materialism began in a big way. People began to measure success much more in material terms that the earlier generations.
Dr. Spock became a great influence in child raising. This meant, in general, these parents were less strict with their children than previous generations had been.
Alcoholics Anonymous was started which began a huge trend in self-help endeavors. This was a great phenomenon, as before this alcoholics generally became street people abandoned by family and friends with no hope for a way out.
Q - In what ways was the mood of the 1950's different from the mood of the 1930's?
The 1930s was called the depression years. Groceries were cheap but a lot of people did not work because of less jobs, so they could not buy too many groceries, if any at all. So, they had a soup line to feed people in chicago. My father told me people would be lined up for blocks. Lot of depressed people. In the 50s the economy got a little better more jobs in factories better technology, TVs came out with one channel, black and white screen. Some people would put clear cellophane paper over the small screen to give color. Also had radio with two knobs not to many channels. So I would say the mood changed from worst to better as years passed
Q - Why do you think the nuclear family become more important during the 1950's?
It was a time to return to traditional values, Church attendance increased, mothers were encouraged to get married and raise families, Dr. Spock suggested that a child couldn't be spoiled too much.
Q - Why was television a better medium than radio for consumerism?
People could actually see the product that they were being sold.
During the war the emphasis was on winning the war. Although television was technically feasible as early as the 30's, RCA and its competitors didn't really get it into mass production until 1947 or 48. Radio was still king during the war. And it also sold a lot of product.
A group of people who called themselves the "Beat Generation" and promoted spontaneous action and a lack of dependency on money and property, focusing more on religion and spiritual action.
These people also challenged the traditional American values with use of illicit drugs and sexual behaviors. These people began to gain a wide youth following, and are considered some of the first to change the American moral trend to this extent.
the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
a government policy to bring Native Americans into mainstream society by withdrawing recognition of Native American groups as legal entities
Q! - Why were some groups of Americans dissatisfied with conditions in post-war America?
"Hidden" provery and discrimination plagued some American, while others criticized the conformity of middle-class life.
The discontents of the 1950s would manifest the first signs of the dissent that would dominate the 1960s.
Q Why did many intellectuals and artists criticize
American culture during the 1950s?
Saw an overemphasis on conformity & loss of
Q - How did the federal government respond to the
decline of American cities?
Urban renewal projects; built public housing
Q - What were some of the problems that minorities
had to overcome in the postwar era
Employment discrimination & segregation
- Mexican migrant farm laborers exploited & lived in
- Native Americans faced end of tribal governments &
loss of aid for healthcare