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Astronomy 001 Exam 3 Study Questions pt. 2
Terms in this set (32)
When a star contracts in size _____
Gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy.
Gravitational equillibrium is when _____
Gravitational force and outward pressure are equal.
Energy balance in the sun is when _____
The rate at which fusion generates energy in the Sun's core and the rate at which the sun's surface radiates energy into space.
The sun's composition is _____
70% hydrogen, 28% helium and 2% other elements.
The sun's surface as we see it with our eyes is called the _____
The sun's average surface temperature (photosphere) is _____
The overall result of the proton-proton chain is _____
4 hydrogens become 1 helium plus energy.
To estimate the central temperature of the sun scientists _____
Use computer models to predict interior conditions.
The interstellar clouds called molecular clouds are _____
The cool clouds in which stars form.
Most interstellar clouds remain stable in size because the forace of gravity is opposed by _____ within the cloud.
The ______ part of the electromagnetic spectrum generally gives us our best views of stars forming in dusty clouds.
The vast majority of stars in a newly formed star cluster are _____
less massive than our Sun.
When a main-sequence star exhausts its core hydrogen fuel supply _____
The core shrinks while the rest of the star expands.
The overall heluim fusion reaction is _____
3 helium nuclei fusing to form 1 carbon nucleus.
A planetary nebula is _____
gas ejected from a low-mass star in the final stage of its life.
_____ cannot release energy by fusion or fission.
Where does gold come from?
It was produced during the supernova explosions of high-mass stars.
A typical white dwarf is as massive as _____ but only about as large in size as _____.
The sun, Earth
An _____ is a disk of hot gas swirling rapidly around a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole.
According to our modern understanding a nova is _____.
an explosion on the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system
What happens to a white dwarf star if it someday reaches the 1.4 solar mass limit?
It will explode completely as a white dwarf supernova.
A neutron star is _____
the remains of a star that died in a massive star supernova.
A typical neutron star is more massive than our Sunda and about the size of _____.
a small asteroid, about 10 km in diameter
If you had something the size of a sugar cube that was made of neutron star matter, it would weigh _____.
about as much as a large mountain
Pulsars are thought to be _____.
rapidly rotating neutron stars
A black hole is _____.
an object with gravity so strong, not even light can escape
Based on current understanding, the minimum mass of a black hole that forms during a massive star supernova is _____.
3 solar masses
The event horizon of a black hole is _____.
the point beyond which light nor anything else can escape
If our sun were suddenly replaced by a black hole of the same mass, the Earth's orbit _____.
would remain unchanged
The singularity of a black hole is _____.
the center of the black hole, a place of infinite density where the known laws of physics cannot describe the conditions.
We think the star system Cygnus X-1 contains a black hole because _____.
it emits x-ray characteristics of an accretion disk, but the unseen star in the system is too massive to be a neutron star
Based on current evidence we know that gamma ray bursts are produced by _____.
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