37 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 10.1 and 10.2

NOT Everything. Some 10.3
STUDY
PLAY
asexual reproduction
reproduction that involves a single parent producing an offspring. they are usually genetically identical to the single cell that produced them.
sexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.
what are some of the difficulties a cell faces as it increases in size?
the larger the cell becomes, the more demand the cell places on its DNA. in addition a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrients and wastes materials across its cell membranes.
living cells store critical information in...
DNA
______, _______, ______, and ______ enters and leaves a cell though the cell membrane
food, oxygen, water, and waste products
Cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
daughter cells
2 identical cells after a cell splits
before cell division, the cell copies all of its...
DNA
Each daughter cell receives a complete set of...
DNA
How do asexual and sexual reproduction compare?
the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent is known as asexual reproduction.Offspring produces by sexual reproduction inherit some of their genetic information from each parent.
asexual only takes place in a unicellular organism (True or False)
False (Also in multicellular organisms)
gamete
Sex cells
mutation
A change in a/many chromosome(s)
DNA is carried by
Chromosomes
what are the role of chromosomes
make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division
binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
main phases of the cell cycle
Interphase (Consists of G1, S1, and G2 phases) and Mphase (consists of mitosis [Mitosis consists of Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telephase] and cytokinesis)
what is the G in G1 and G2 stand for
Growth
what does the S in S phase stand for
Synthesis
G1 Phase
Grows
S phase
Replicated
G2 Phase
rapid growth to prepare for division
Mitosis
the first step where the nucleus is divided that helps with cell division in the cell cycle
Cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm
What events occur during each of the four phases of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telephase
Prophase
first phase of mitosis; the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, a spindle starts to form
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis; the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis; where chromosomes separate and move along the spindle fibers to the opposite end of the cell
Telophase
the last phase of mitosis; the chromosomes, which were distinct and condensed, begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
Cell Cycle
a cycle that cells go through, containing growth, preparation for division, and division itself
Centriole
an organelle near the nucleus where spindle fibers start
Centromere
the part of the chromosome where the two chromatids connect
Chromatid
each DNA strand in a chromosome
Chromatin
chromosomes are made from this material
Chromosome
a threadlike structure that carries genetic material in the form of genes
Interphase
the first step in the cell cycle that includes growth, cell replication, and preparation for division
cyclins
a family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.