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U. S. History: Reconstruction and It's Effects

Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) SSUSH10.a Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction; SSUSH10.b Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen's Bureau; SSUSH10.c Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; SSUSH10.d Explain Black Codes, the Ku, Klux, Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality durin…
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Freedmen's Bureau Acts
(1865-1866)
Offered assistance, such as medical aid and education, to freed slaves and war refugees.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Granted citizenship and equal protection under the law to African Americans.
Fourteenth Amendment
(ratified 1868)
Makes all persons "born or naturalized in the United States" citizens; stipulates that states that prevented male citizens from voting would lose a percentage of their congressional seats; barred most Confederate leaders from holding political offices.

This Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by Southern states, which were forced to ratify it in order for them to regain representation in Congress.

Particularly its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Roe v. Wade (1973) regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore (2000) regarding the 2000 presidential election, and Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) regarding same-sex marriage. The amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official.

The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, and Equal Protection Clause. The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. The Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted in such a way that it does very little.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Abolished governments formed in the former Confederate states; divided those states into five military districts; set up requirements for readmission to the Union.
Fifteenth Amendment
(ratified 1870)
States that no one can be kept from voting because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.

In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of black former slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black voters was important for the party's future. After rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude on February 26, 1869. The amendment survived a difficult ratification fight and was adopted on March 30, 1870.
Enforcement Act of 1870
Protected the voting rights of African Americans and gave the federal government power to enforce the Fifteenth Amendments.
Andrew Johnson
The 17th president of the United States. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln as president -- entered politics in Tennessee. He won several important offices, including those of congressman, governor, and U.S. senator.

The only senator from a Confederate state to remain loyal to the Union. A former slave-owner, by 1863 supported abolition. He hated wealthy Southern planters, whom he held responsible for dragging poor whites into the war. Early in 1865, endorsed harsh punishment for the rebellion's leaders.
Reconstruction
The period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War, lasting from 1865 to 1877. The term also refers to the process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states. Complicating the process was the fact that Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and Congress had differing ideas of how "this process" should be handled.
Radical Republicans
A faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from about 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

They opposed during the War by the Moderate Republicans (led by Abraham Lincoln), by the conservative Republicans (led by Secretary of State William H. Seward), and the largely pro-slavery and later anti-Reconstruction Democratic Party, as well as by self-styled "conservatives" in the South and "liberals" in the North during Reconstruction. Strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for punishing the former rebels, and emphasizing equality, civil rights, and voting rights for the "freedmen" (recently freed slaves).
Thaddeus Stevens
Before serving in Congress, he had practiced law in Pennsylvania, where he defended runaway slaves. He hated slavery and in time came to hate white Southerners as well.

He declared, "I look upon every man who would permit slavery...as a traitor to liberty and disloyal to God."

Led by Charles Sumner of Massachusetts and this Representative from Pennsylvania, a Radical Republican leader who wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders. Most of all, they wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship and the right to vote. In 1865, the idea of African-American suffrage was truly radical; no other country that had abolished slavery had given former slaves the vote.
Wade-Davis Bill
In July 1864, the Radicals responded to the Ten-Percent Plan by passing this, which proposed that Congress, not the president, be responsible for Reconstruction.

It also declared that for a state government to be formed, a majority -- not just ten percent -- of those eligible to vote in 1860s would have to take a solemn oath to support the Constitution.
Freedman's Bureau
Was a U.S. federal government agency established in 1865 to aid freedmen (freed slaves) in the South during the Reconstruction era of the United States, which attempted to change society in the former Confederacy.

Made a part of the United States Department of War, as it was the only agency with an existing organization that could be assigned to the South. Headed by Union Army General Oliver O. Howard, this 'agency' started operations in 1865. Throughout the first year, its representatives learned that these tasks would be very difficult, as Southern legislatures passed laws for Black Codes that restricted movement, conditions of labor, and other civil rights of African Americans, nearly duplicating conditions of slavery. This 'agency' controlled limited arable land.

Powers were expanded to help African Americans find family members from whom they had become separated during the war. It arranged to teach them to read and write, considered critical by the freedmen themselves as well as the government.
black codes
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws called ____________, severely restricted African American's lives. Mississippi and South Carolina had first enacted ____________ in 1865, and other Southern states had rapidly followed suit. This had the effect of restoring many restrictions of slavery by prohibiting blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, marrying whites, and traveling without permits. In some states, African Americans were forbidden to own land.

Even worse, in many areas resentful whites used violence to keep blacks from improving their position in society. To many members of Congress, the passage of __________ indicated that the South had not given up the idea of keep African Americans in bondage.
impeach
To formerly charge an official with misconduct in office. The House of Representatives has the sole power to impeach federal officials.

It's no small decision for Congress 'to do this' (accuse of a crime or misdemeanor) the president, but in 1868 that's exactly what happened. In February, the House of Representatives voted to __________ President Andrew Johnson. His trial, with the chief justice of the Supreme Court presiding, began on March 30 with the Senate serving as jury. Johnson was accused of having broken the law, but on May 16, 1868, the U.S. Senate failed to convict him by one vote. A second vote taken 10 days later had the same result: one vote short of the two-thirds majority required to convict.

More recently, this happened to William (Bill) J. Clinton by the House on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in relationship to his affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was eventually acquitted by the Senate.
scalawag
This term is used for a white Southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War. Some __________(s) hoped to gain political offices with the help of the African-American vote and then use those offices to enrich themselves.

Southern Democrats unfairly pointed to these unscrupulous individuals as representative of all white Southern Republicans. Some so-called __________(s) honestly though that a Republican government offered the best chances for the South to rebuild and industrialize. The majority were small farmers who wanted to improve their economic and political position and to prevent the former wealthy planters from regaining power.
carpetbagger
This term is used for a Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War. The name referred to the belief that Northerners arrived with so few belongings that everything could fit in a carpetbag, a small piece of luggage made of carpeting.

Most white Southerners believed that the carpetbaggers wanted to exploit the South's postwar turmoil for their own profit.
Hiram Rhodes Revels
Born in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Was a minister who, in 1870, became the first African-American United States senator, representing the state of Mississippi. He served for a year before leaving to become the president of a historically black college. Died on January 16, 1901, in Aberdeen, Mississippi.

Participated in the Civil War, organizing two black regiments for the Union Army. He also fought for the Union at the Battle of Vicksburg. After the war, he settled in Natchez, Mississippi, with his wife and daughters, and continued his career in the clergy. He quickly grew to be a respected member of the community, known for his keen intelligence and oratorical skills. Although he had no previous government experience, garnered enough community support to win election to the position of alderman in 1868, during the first phase of Reconstruction. He then served briefly in the Mississippi State Senate.
sharecropping
A system in which landowners give farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise. Sharecroppers seldom owned anything. Instead, they borrowed practically everything — not only the land and a house but also supplies, draft animals.

After the Civil War, thousands of former slaves and white farmers forced off their land by the bad economy lacked the money to purchase the farmland, seeds, livestock, and equipment they needed to begin farming. Former planters were so deeply in debt that they could not hire workers. They needed workers who would not have to be paid until they harvested a crop — usually one of the two labor-intensive cash crops that still promised to make money: cotton or tobacco. Many of these landowners divided their lands into smaller plots and turned to a tenant system.

In this system landowners divided their land and gave each worker -- either freed African American or poor white. At harvest time, each worker gave a share of his crop, usually half, to the landowner. This share paid the owner back ended the arrangement until it was renewed the following year. Sharecroppers had no control over which crops were planted or how they were sold. After harvesting the crop, the landowner sold it and applied its income toward settling the sharecropper's account.
tenant farming
A system in which farm workers supply their own tools and rent farmland for cash. In essence, a farmer who raises crops on land that is rented from someone else.

During the Gilded Age many African Americans and whites lacked the money to buy farmland and farm supplies.

Usually paid the landowner rent for farmland and a house. They owned the crops they planted and made their own decisions about them. After harvesting the crop, the tenant sold it and received income from it. From that income, he paid the landowner the amount of rent owed.
Henry McNeal Turner
One of the most influential African American leaders in late-nineteenth-century Georgia. A pioneering church organizer and missionary for the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Georgia, later rising to the rank of bishop. He was also an active politician and Reconstruction-era state legislator from Macon. Later in life, he became an outspoken advocate of back-to-Africa emigration. Became a leading proponent of African-American emigration to Africa.
reparations for slavery
The U.S. government's first ___________ plan to compensate African-Americans (specifically freed adult males) for the legacy of slavery was 40 acres and a mule (i.e the use of army mules) apiece -- that was Gen. William Sherman's promise to former slaves shortly after the Civil War ended in 1865. His order set aside land on the Georgia and South Carolina coasts for the settlement of thousands of newly freed families. But the promise was quickly recanted and the land was taken back, with no other plans for __________.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War.

Founded as a social club for Confederate veterans, started in Tennessee in 1866. As membership in the group spread rapidly through the South, many of the new chapters turned into violent terrorist organizations. Members wore costumes to conceal their identities and to appear more menacing.
panic of 1873
A series of financial failures that triggered a five-year depression in the United States.

In September 1873, Cooke's (Jay Cooke) banking firm, the nation's largest dealer in government securities, went bankrupt, settling off a series of financial failures known as 'this'. Smaller banks closed, and the stock market temporarily collapsed. Within a year, 89 railroads went broke. By 1875, more than 18,000 companies had folder. This event triggered a five-year economic depression -- a period of reduced business activity and high unemployment -- in which 3 million workers lost their jobs.
redemption
The Southern Democrats' term for their return to power in the South in the 1870s.
Rutherford B. Hayes
In 1876, Grant decided not to run for a third term. This Republicans then chose this stodgy governor of Ohio.

He became the 19th President of the United States (1877-81). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.
Samuel J. Tilden
Smelling victory, the Democrats put up one of their ablest leaders from New York. This person helped clean up the graft that had flourished in New York City under the corrupt Tweed Ring.

The 25th Governor of New York and the Democratic candidate for the U.S. Presidency in the disputed election of 1876, winning a popular vote majority, but ultimately being denied victory by the electoral college. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community and led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall.
Compromise of 1877
A series of congressional measures under which the Democrats agreed to accept the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes as president, even though he had lost the popular vote. The measures included the withdrawal of federal troops from Southern states, federal money for improving Southern infrastructure, and the appointment of conservative Southern cabinet member.
home rule
A state's powers of governing its citizens without federal government involvement.
Slaughterhouse cases
Ruling: 1873

Most civil rights were ruled to be state, rather than federal, rights and therefore unprotected by the Fourteenth Amendment.
United States v. Cruikshank
Ruling: 1876

The Fourteenth Amendment was ruled not to grant the federal government power to punish whites who oppressed blacks.
United States v. Reese
Ruling: 1876

The Fifteenth Amendment was determined not to grant voting right to anyone, but rather to restrict types of voter discrimination.
Dominican Republic
Although the United States focused largely on domestic problems during Reconstruction, the nation did have one significant dealing with a foreign power. In 1870, President Grant attempted to annex the __________ __________, one if two nations sharing the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (the other being Haiti).

This action aroused a storm of controversy. The plan's supporters believed that annexation would increase Caribbean trade and spread "the blessings of our free institutions." Opponents pointed out that the __________ __________ was caught up in a civil war and felt that the United States should avoid involvement in the conflict. The Senate rejected the annexation treaty.
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