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Biology Exam #3
Terms in this set (60)
The basis for assigning populations to the same biological species:
-when they are able to have viable offspring that develop into fertile adults
-measurable physical traits
-ecological resources they use
-unique adaptations to particular roles in a biological community
which groups can the biological species concept not be applied to?
-organisms that reproduce asexually
What are the pre-zygotic barriers?
prevents mating or fertilization between different species, impedes mating or hinders fertilization if mating attempted
What are the post-zygotic barriers?
the barriers that operate should interspecies mating occur and form hybrid zygote, prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into viable, fertile adults
the branch of biology that names and classifies species and formalizes the hierarchical ordering according to a scheme
What are the taxonomic levels?
-Species (C. furmiferana)
What are the hierarchical levels from "cell to organism?"
Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
What does a physiologist study?
The normal functions of living organisms and their parts
A sheet of tightly packed cells lining organs and cavities. It consists of a sparse population of cells scattered throughout the extracurricular matrix. It binds and supports other tissues.
Tissue consisting of cells held in an abundant extracellular matrix.
A type of connective tissue whose cells contain fat.
Tissue made up of neurons and supportive tissue.
A connective tissue consisting of red and white blood cels found in a liquid called plasma.
Tissue consisting of long muscle cells that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses.
Striated muscle attached to the skeleton. The contraction of striated muscle produces voluntary movements of the body. Exercise and movement enlarge skeletal muscles.
What is the basic unit of nerve tissue?
the boys tendency to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment even when the external environment changes
The outer layer of 3 embryonic cell layers in a gastrula. IT forms the skin of the gastrula and gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system in the adult.
An embryonic stage during animal development. Most animals have a gastrula made up of 3 layers of cells [ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm]
The innermost of the 3 embryonic cell layers in a gastrula. The endoderm forms the developing digestive tube in the gastrula and gives rise to the innermost linings of the digestive tract and other hollow organs in the adult.
What is the physiological response when the body is too hot or too cold?
sweat or goosebumps
An organism whose body fluids have a solute concentration = to that of its surroundings. Osmoconformers do NOT have a net gain or loss of water by osmosis
(osmoregulation= The control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes in an organism) An osmoregulator is an organism whose body fluids have a solute concentration different from that of its environment and that must use energy in controller water loss or gain.
Water and valuable solutes are reclaimed and returned to the blood
Certain substances, such as ions and drugs are transported into the filtrate
What is thermoregulation and how is it achieved in animals?
Thermoregulation: The maintenance of internal temperature within a range that allows cells to function efficiently.
How is it achieved in animals: Panting (dogs), bathing, and having hair, fat or feathers
Know the difference between and carnivore and herbivore and some examples.
Herbivores refer to animals that consume only plant products. (cows, llamas, koalas)
Carnivores are animals that consume the flesh and meat of other animals, for food. (lions, tigers, and bears, oh my!)
Know what digestion is and the order of the four stages of food processing.
3Digestion: Using physical and chemical means to break down complex organic molecules into smaller usable parts
The breakdown of food by physical processes such as chewing
The chemical breakdown of food by digestive enzymes
Know what the tongue does to the food you eat.
shapes food into a ball and pushes this food ball to the back of the mouth (called a bolus)
alternating waves of muscular contractions and relaxation that squeeze the food ball along the esophagus
Know what the epiglottis is and the two structures that the pharynx open to
The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing.
Opens to the esophagus and larynx
What regulates the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine and how chyme is formed.
hepyloric sphincter or valve.
Chyme is part liquid and part solid: a thick semifluid mass of partially digested food and digestive secretions that is formed in the stomach and small intestine during digestion.
what usually causes heartburn?
Heartburn is an irritation of the esophagus that is caused by stomach acid. This can create a burning discomfort in the upper abdomen or below the breast bone.
How does Helicobacteria pylori cause gastric ulcers in humans?
It damages the stomach's mucus coat.
Where does most nutrient absorption occur in the digestive system?
Where is bile stored and what food does it help digest?
Bile helps to digest fats
Where is feces stored until eliminated?
What are vitamins?
organic molecules required in the diet in very small amounts
Why are certain amino acids called essential?
The body cannot produce them on its own
In humans, what system delivers oxygen to the cells of the body and where does gas exchange occur in animals with a closed circulatory system?
Do veins carry blood toward or away from the heart and do pulmonary arteries carry oxygen rich or poor blood?
Veins carry blood toward the heart. The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated (02-poor) blood from the heart to the lungs so the blood can be oxygenated.
Know which animals have a double circulatory system? fish, earthworm, hydra, grasshopper, or dog.
systole blood pressure
Blood pressure is higher because the heart is contracting which makes the pressure higher
What is a normal blood pressure reading?
healthy adult at rest = 70-80
diastole blood pressure
The lower number which is when the heart relaxes between beats
Where is blood pressure the highest?
Where is blood pressure the lowest?
What do blood cells do and which blood components are responsible for clotting?
blood cells transport nutrients and oxygen. Platelets are responsible for clotting.
What is Leukemia?
Cancer of the white blood cells
What is Arterial sclerosis?
-The build up of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls. Plaque build up in artery wall.
-narrowing of blood vessel
-chronic cardiovascular disease
How do earthworms obtain oxygen?
Through their skin
Know the path oxygen takes from the nose to the respiratory surface in humans
What blood/gas exchange initially urges us to breathe again when we hold our breath?
The rising of CO2 levels
What do stomach gastric glands secrete?
strong acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and pepsin
What does mucus int he stomach do?
Mucus coating he stomach lining helps protect it from abrasive materials in the food
What does the colon do?
Most o the length of the large intestine, the tubular portions of vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and the rectum; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces
What does your metabolic rate depend upon?
How active you are, body size, age, stress level, and heredity
Across what cells does gas exchange occur in humans?
O2 diffuses from red blood cells into body cells
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