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79 terms

AP Psychology: Unit 1

Vocab from Baron's AP Psychology prep book and Psychology, AP Edition with Discovery Psychology
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introspection
first began in laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt; process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experiences
structuralism
idea proposed by Wundt that the mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations; aimed to uncover the basic structures that make up mind and thought
functionalism
theory presented by William James; emphasizes adaptiveness of the mental or behavioral processes
Wilhelm Wundt
set up first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879; known for training subjects in introspection and for his theory of structuralism
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
William James
published The Principles of Psychology, the science's first textbook; responsible for theory of functionalism
Mary Whiton Calkins
studied with William James and went on to become president of the American Psychological Association
G. Stanley Hall
student of William James who pioneered he study of child development and was the first president of the APA
Gestalt psychology
theory that states that the whole experience is often more than just the sum of the parts, because the way we experience the world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences; relatively little influence on current psychology
Max Wertheimer
Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures
psychoanalysis
theory that states a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control determines, in part, how we think and behave
Sigmund Freud
revolutionized psychology with his psychoanalytic theory; believed the unconscious mind must be examined through dream analysis, word association, and other psychoanalytic therapy techniques; criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories
behaviorism
theory that states psychologists should look at only behavior and causes of behavior, and not concern themselves with describing elements of consciousness; dominant school of thought in psychology from the 1920s through the 1960s
John Watson
psychologist who believed the science must limit itself to observable phenomena; wanted to establish behaviorism as the dominant paradigm of psychology
B. F. Skinner
behaviorist who expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement- environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses
humanism
modern psychological viewpoint that stresses individual choice and free will; suggests that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional or spiritual needs; not easily tested by the scientific method; includes theorists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
biopsychology
modern psychological perspective that explains human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes (e.g. genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters)
evolutionary perspective
also known as Darwinian; modern psychological perspective that examines human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection; similar to biopsychology
behavioral perspective
modern psychological perspective that explains human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning; looks strictly at observable behaviors and what reaction organisms get in response to specific behaviors
cognitive perspective
modern psychological perspective that examines human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events
sociocultural perspective
modern psychological perspective that looks at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures; emphasizes the influence of culture on the way we think and act
Jean Piaget
came up with a cognitive developmental theory, which focuses on how our cognitions develop in stages as we mature
developmental perspective
modern psychological perspective emphasizing that change occurs across a lifespan; focus has shifted over recent years to teens and adults
trait view
modern psychological perspective that views behavior and personality as the products of enduring psychological characteristics
basic research
explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications; also referred to as experimental psychology
operational definitions
a researcher's explanation how the variable of an experiment will be measured
valid
research that measures what the researcher set out to measure; accurate
reliable
research that can be replicated and is consistent
participants
individuals on which research is conducted
sampling
the process by which participants for research are selected
population
includes anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample for research
random selection
every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as a participant in research
stratified sampling
process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria
laboratory experiments
experiments conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment; advantage of being easily controlled
field experiments
experiments conducted in the world; advantage of being more realistic
confounding variables
any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable
assignment
the process by which participants are put into a group, experimental control
random assignment
each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group
participant-relevant confounding variables
when groups are not randomly assigned during an experiment; increases the chance of participants in the two groups differ in any meaningful way
group matching
used if one wants to ensure that the experimental and control groups are equivalent on some criterion (e.g. sex, IQ scores, or age)
situation-relevant confounding variables
when the situations into which the different groups of an experiment are put are not truly equivalent; can create invalid experiment results due to the situation rather than the independent variable
experimenter bias
the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis
double-blind procedure
when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research
demand characteristics
cues about the purpose of the study; participants use such cues to try to respond appropriately, skewing the validity of the experiment
response bias
the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways; can alter validity of experiment
social desirability
the tendency of participants to try to give answers that reflect well upon them
pseudopsychology
erroneous assertions or practices set forth as being scientific psychology
confirmation bias
the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not
Plato
ancient Greek philosopher who studied areas like cognition; was first philosopher credited with the study of gaining knowledge
Aristotle
ancient Greek philosopher who developed theories of sensation, perception, cognition, memory, problems olving, and ethics
René Descartes
17th century French philosopher who asserted that human sensations and behaviors are based on activity in the nervous system
Wolfgang Kohler
Gestalt psychologist who studied insight learning, an overlooked form of learning marked by sudden "Aha!" experiences
neuroscience
field devoted to understanding how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, motives, consciousness, memories and other mental processes
cognitions
mental processes, such as thinking, memory, sensation, and perception
cognitive neuroscience
an interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing; involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain
psychodynamic psychology
modern clinical viewpoint emphasizing the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts
clinical view
psychological perspective emphasizing mental health and mental illness; psychodynamic and humanistic psychology are variations of this
empirical investigation
an approach to research that relies on sensory experience and observation as research data
scientific method
developing a hypothesis, performing a controlled test, gathering objective data, analyzing results, and publishing, criticizing, and replicating the results
random presentation
process by which chance alone determines the order in which the stimulus is presented in an experiment
ex post facto
non-experimental method; research in which subjects are chosen based on a pre-existing condition
correlational studies
non-experimental method; a type of research that is mainly statistical in nature; determines the relationship between two variables
survey
non-experimental method; a quasi-experimental method in which questions are asked to subjects; when being designed, the researcher hast o be careful that the questions are not skewed or biased towards a particular answer
naturalistic observation
non-experimental method; research in which subjects are observed in their natural environment
longitudinal study
non-experimental method; a type of study in which one group of subjects is followed and observed (or examined, surveyed, etc.) for an extended period of time (years.)
cross-sectional study
a study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time
cohort-sequential study
a research method in which a cross section of the population is chosen and then each cohort is followed for a short period of time
frequency distribution
a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
histogram
a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution; the height of the bars indicates the frequency of the group of scores
descriptive statistics
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
measure of variability
how closely scores bunch up around the central point; a statistic that indicates the spread of distribution
measures of central tendency
averages; mean, median, and mode
hindsight bias
people's tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along
applied research
research conducted in order to solve practical problems
standard deviation
a measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the sources and their mean
normal distribution
a bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic throughout a population
correlation coefficient
a number between -1 and +1 expressing the degree of relationship between two variables
inferential statistics
statistical techniques (based on probability theory) used to assess whether the results of a study are reliable or whether they might be simply the result of chance; often used to determine whether two or more groups are essentially the same or different
representative sample
a sample obtained in such a way that it reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population in which the researchers are interested; variables such as age, income level, ethnicity, and geographic distribution