Terms in this set (76)
male flower part; made up of filaments and anthers
female flower part containing eggs; base of flower
male flower part which holds up the anther(s); may be more than on on a flower
pollen sacs on top of filaments; male flower part
contain sperm; male gamete in plants
female gamete in plants
ring of modified leaves located Inside the sepals; brightly colored; attract organisms to aid in pollination
layer of petals around flower
outer ring of sepal leaves at base of flower
modified leaves which provide protection to the flower before it opens; usually green
tubular structure located between the stigma and the ovary on a flower
receptive surface on top of the style which pollen lands on.....(female flower part)
wind, water, animals, insects
methods of pollen transfer from one flower to another
characteristics of flowers to attract insects for pollination
process in which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of seed plants, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction through growth of the pollen tube and eventual release of sperm
characteristics of root system
Anchor the plant in the soil
Absorb water and nutrients
Conduct water and nutrients
characteristics of shoot system
Above ground (usually)
Elevates the plant above the soil
includes leaves and reproductive organs
Many functions including:
2) reproduction & dispersal
3) food and water conduction
the terminal portion of a root or root branch usually including the root cap and the meristematic region behind it and often the regions of differentiation, elongation, and root hair formation
section of tissue at the tip of a plant root; contains cell which in gravity perception
** A hairlike outgrowth of a plant root that absorbs
water and minerals from the soil.
** tubular extensions of the epidermis that greatly
increase the surface area of the root
an organ which develops directly from a plant embryo
extend horizontally from the primary root;
serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil;
This branching of roots also contributes.....
1) to water uptake
2) facilitating the extraction of nutrients required for
the growth and development of the plant.
vascular tissue layer in plants which is involved in conducting water and ions
vascular tissue layer in plants which is Involved in the transport of sucrose, other organic compounds, and some ions
tissue layers in plants which are comprised of actively dividing cells (mitosis)
Flattened part of the leaf
leaf like appendages at the base of the leaf
shape of leaf
shape of leaf tip
shape of leaf margins (edges)
primary tools in plant identification
alternate leaf arrangement
leaves arranged in staggered fashion along stem
opposite leaf arrangement
pair of leaves arranged across from each other on the stem
whorled leaf arrangement
leaves arranged in a ring around stem
rosette leaf arrangement
leaves arranged in a spiral cluster at base of stem
simple leaflet arrangement on petiole
Leaf blade is one continuous unit
(cherry, maple, and elm)
compound leaflet arrangement on petiole
Several leaflets arise from the same petiole
veins run parallel
(grasses, tulips, lilies)
branched veins from main rib
Embryo with one cotyledon
Pollen with single furrow or pore
Flower parts in multiples of three
Major leaf veins parallel
Embryo with two cotyledons
Pollen with three pores
flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
reticulated (branched) leaf veins
Upon germination, this plant part usually becomes the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
the process by which a plant grows from a seed; sprouting of a seedling
Specialized kidney-shaped cells that open and close the stomata.
Natural openings in leaves and herbaceous stems that allow for gas exchange (water vapor, carbon dioxide and oxygen).
Layer of parenchyma tissues loosely arranged to facilitate movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. It also may contain some chloroplasts.
Xylem and phloem tissues, commonly known as leaf veins.
photosynthetic organelles in leaf cells and other green tissues.....contain chlorophyll, a green plant pigment that captures the energy in light and begins the transformation of that energy into sugars
A tightly packed layer of parenchyma tissues filled with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
outer layer of tissues on leaf/plant
Waxy protective outer layer of epidermis that prevents water loss on leaves, green stems, and fruits.
part of epidermis
function in plant protection; insulation; aids in reproduction
function of leaves
1) To compete for light for photosynthesis, i.e., the
manufacture of sugars
2) Evapotranspiration from the leaves moves water
and nutrients up from the roots.
3) Small openings on the leaf, known as
stomata,regulate moisture and gas exchange (water
and carbon dioxide) and temperature (cooling effect
as water vapor escapes through stomata).
function of fruits
reproduction; contain seeds
another name for seeds
ovary wall of fruit
fleshy part of apple or hard/dry like a nut)
fruit from conifers
(pine trees, junipers, evergreens)
Modified leaf used for climbing or as an attachment mechanism
(Virginia creeper, peas, grapes)
functions of stems
* bear leaves and flowers
* continuation of the vascular system pipeline that
starts in the roots.
* Framework for leaves, flowers and seeds
* Continuation of vascular system carrying water and
minerals from the soil, and sugars manufactured in
leaves throughout the plant.
* Green stems also manufacture food (photosynthesis).
* Food storage
Bud without a protective bud scale;
A modified leaf protecting and covering a bud
buds which grow from the leaf axils on the side of a stem.
Bud at the tip of a stem.
**stem's primary growing point
**leafy (vegetative) function
**flowering (reproductive) function
Mark left on stem where leaf was attached.
Often used in woody plant identification.
Marks left in the leaf scar from the vascular tissue attachment.
Used in woody plant identification.
Segment of stem where leaves and lateral buds are attached.
section of a stem between two nodes.
Complete - Flower containing sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil
Incomplete - Flower lacking sepals, petals, stamens, and/or pistils
Plants with perfect flowers (apples, tulips)
Plants with separate male flowers and female flowers on the same plant (corn, squash, and pine)
Plants with male flowers and female flowers on separate plants (maple, holly, and salt brush)
flowers containing sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil
flowers lacking sepals, petals, stamens, and/or pistils
Flowers containing male and female parts
Flowers that lack either male or female parts
flowers containing only female parts
flowers containing only male parts