Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Sociology 1301 Final
Terms in this set (453)
Which of the following is NOT a manifest function of attending college?
to learn how to live independently
Which social thinker produced ground-breaking research on race in America?
W.E.B De Bois
Which social theories focus on how people use shared symbols and construct society as a result of their everyday interactions?
symbolic interactionist theories
What term refers to the social bonds that connect individuals to each other?
What is industrialization?
the use of machines to mass produce items for purchase
Inequalities based on race and gender in American society are the result of _______ differences?
What term did Emile Durkheim use for how individuals employed specific skills to complete specialized work within a society?
division of labor
Auguste Comte is associated with which foundation of sociological thought?
What term did Emile Durkheim use to explain a sense of normlessness?
What was Immanuel Kant describing with the motto "Dare to know?"
What social thinker believed that a rational view of the social world replaced tradition as the basis for organizing society?
In order to understand our lives, sociologists would argue that we need to...
examine the contexts in which we live
Which theory views society as being shaped by competition, the struggle for power, and an unequal distribution of resources?
Which term do sociologists use for a collection of propositions that work to explain how social phenomena operate?
During the Middle Ages, who or what dominated European intellectual life?
the Church and its clergy
Which term refers to the use of factories and mills to mass produce goods for sale?
A society's values, knowledge, language, interactions, and material objects reflect its...
Collective conscience focuses on
common values shared by members of a society
Which concept describes the processes of examining the social world though understanding how individuals are connected to the societies in which they live?
Which theoretical perspective would argue that culture is created through the ways that individual members interpret the meanings of material objects and their exchanges with others?
symbolic interactionist theory
Which theoretical perspective would argue that power differences have a positive effect on society because they provide motivation for individuals to compete for highly rewarded positions?
Which theoretical perspective argues that social structure is maintained by those with power to maintain the values and ideals of dominant groups?
The movement of individuals from living in rural farming towns to living in centralized cities is known as...
Which of the following best summarizes Karl Marx's view of the social world?
The nature of capitalism creates great wealth and crushing poverty.
Which of the following best summarizes Emile Durkheim's view of the social world?
Society works because there is a collective understanding of behaviors.
Persistent patterns in how people act in society is called...
The rise in scientific thought, the Age of Enlightenment, and the declining influence of religion in everyday life are associated with _____ revolution.
Which historical period is marked by increased multiculturalism, a shift towards information-based economies, and the emergence of mega-cities?
Someone's ability to impose their will on another person is called...
Who used the term "sociological imagination" to describe a way of viewing the connections individuals have to their social worlds?
The historical period marked by a shift to urban industrial economies and increased faith in science and reason is known as...
Which of the following is NOT a latent function of attending college?
developing job skills
Which theory views society as working toward agreement and believes that each aspect of a society works to ensure society's smooth operation?
Maria wants to write a paper for her college class that explores how married couples divide household chores. She wants to argue that gender shapes how couples share housework. Given her topic and argument, her class is a part of what discipline?
To what aspect of life is it impossible to apply the sociological perspective?
The sociological perspective can be applied to all aspects of life
The unintended results of social phenomena are called...
The intended results of social phenomena are called...
Which concept describes how logic and the systematic collection of evidence are used to support theories about the natural and social world?
The principle that true knowledge must be based on the scientific method is known as
The systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society is called...
Which term is used for data that represents different values?
What is the portion of a population studied by researchers that represents the whole population?
Researchers who make their findings known to nonacademic audiences are engaging in...
What is the purpose of the peer-review process?
It helps to ensue that the only quality research is published
The term that refers to scholars' gathering and evaluation of data is...
Closed-ended questions are used in _____ research.
In a sociological study of the relationship between two variables, which one changes in response to changes in the other?
In designing a study of the relationship between grades and class attendance Mana states that she expects grades to improve as class attendance increases. This statement is her study's...
The two key components of social research are theory and...
Studies that aim to understand and work toward solving social problems are referred to as...
What is the term that refers to a relationship in which one variable is connected to change in another variable?
Which of the following research methods can effectively describe large populations in a cost-effective way?
An educated guess that explains the relationship between two variables in as study is called a...
Evidence that is non-numerical, such as information gathered from interviews or observation, is known as ____ data.
Sociological research is evaluated for quality prior to publication. This is known as...
the peer-review process
Before Leann starts interviewing her research participants, she informs them of the risks and benefits of their participation in her study. By doing this, she is ensuring...
What term refers to when researchers share how they collected and analyzed their data?
What type of research focuses on how individuals create meaning in their everyday lives?
interpretive social science
What kind of research involves the analysis of data that one did not collect oneself?
secondary data analysis
Qualitative date and quantitative data are examples of...
The target group a researcher is interested in studying is the...
What term refers to the process of developing specific values for the concepts in your study?
What is the second step in the sociological research process?
develop a specific research topic
A sampling method that involves selecting cases to include by chance is called ___ sampling.
In his study of workplace harassment, George changed the names of the participants that he quoted in his final report. This was done to ensure...
In a sociological study of the relationship between variables, what is associated with and/or causes change in the value of the other?
Garner is conducting a study on how students who live on campus eat. He asked participants to record where they ate each of their meals. He found that during the week he collected data, there was a large increase in the number of students eating in the dining hall when compared to the weeks before and after he conducted his study. With what phenomena should Garner be conducted in his findings?
Evidence that is based in numbers is known as ___ data.
What is the first step in the sociological research process?
Exploring a topic
What type of research seeks to create knowledge that can be used to make society a better place?
critical social science
Which research method allows for specific variables to be controlled and manipulated?
Beth conducted a study and found that individuals with more education tend to marry later and have fewer children. What is the independent variable in her studies?
Studies that describe and help us better understand some aspect of society are examples of
What term refers to the process of removing ones personal viewpoints and opinions from the research process?
The Black Panthers and the Ku Klux Klan could be considered examples of
Historically, which group is most likely to have access to and experience high culture?
Norms for participation in the online world are known as
Which of the following statements is generally true regarding taxation and poverty rates among industrialized countries?
The lower the tax rate, the higher the poverty rate
Judging other cultures by the standards of one's own on the assumption that one's own is superior is known as...
When people teach their children to push only the button of the floor that they need when going into the elevator, what is the purpose?
to teach appropriate behaviors
If your cell phone rings in the library and others give you a disapproving look, you have likely violated a...
Where does nonmaterial culture exist?
in the world of thoughts and ideas
The mass media typically represent and reflect which type of culture?
Women continue to receive lower wages for similar jobs in society. This is an example of...
In most countries, citizens hold their country in high regard and typically have high levels of patriotism. After the United States experienced the terrorist attacks of September 11, many Americans felt even more patriotic and viewed the United States as the best country in the world. What does this view reflect?
Which statement about norms is FALSE?
norms are rigid
A large group of people who live together in a specific area and share a culture is known as a...
Which sociologist coined the term cultural lag?
A culture that exists within societies in which the ideas and practices of those in power are represented is known as a...
A variant of a language with its unique accent and vocabulary is known as a...
What is the difference between a more and a folkway?
mores are more strictly enforced than folkways
What is often necessary in professions that work with people from different cultural backgrounds?
cultural awareness training
When Fernando and Olivia moved from Mexico to the United States, they were expected to learn English. At their jobs, it was expected that they become fluent English speakers and that they would adapt to the dominant corporate culture. When they participated in the pot luck lunches at work, most people preferred that they bring an American dish. What were Fernando and Olivia experiencing?
In the United States, when stepping into an elevator, people often move to the back to allow others to get on and get off. This is an example of...
What is another way to refer to culture?
a way of life
What is the key concept underlying the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
languages affect how their speakers think and behave
A sound, gesture,image, or object that represents something else is known as a...
Research shows that people in wealthier countries often tend to be less religious than those in poorer countries. Which country is an exception to this pattern?
Athletes who train and participate in triathlons would be considered examples of...
What is a system of meaning that helps define, explain, and make value judgements about the world?
People sharing a common language, worldview, history, and tradition can promote...
Which of the following statements would be considered a dominant ideology in the United States?
people should be able to practice whatever religion that they choose
Symbols used in emails or text messages, created by text characters, are know as...
Which of the following social reforms began as part of a belief system of a subculture and have moved into mainstream acceptance?
What did Lori Holyfield's research reveal about the symbol of the Confederate flag?
there were multiple meanings given to the Confederate flag
Jewelry, cars, home, and boats would be considered what aspect of culture?
Actions associated with a group that help to reproduce a distinctive way of life are known as...
What are social roles?
the social expectations that go along with a given social status
Why did some describe the social structure of New Orleans right after Hurricane Katrina as "collapsing?"
daily routines and patterns of behavior broke down in the days following Katrina
Positions in social systems that individuals can occupy are social...
In her look at space shuttle tragedies, sociologist Diane Vaughn found that...
information loss at NASA may have contributed to the space shuttle disasters
What level of society is a sociologist studying if he is examining the structure and routines of an organization like a school or business?
What is the "news net?"
the routines of news outlets that shape where they look for new stories
According to functionalists, what do the functions of institutions accomplish?
the functions help to maintain social stability
How do daily routines relate to the idea of social structure?
daily routines illustrate how patterned and predictable our social world can be
Which best describes a social structure?
recurring patterns of behavior
How have cell phones changed the nature of social interaction?
they have allowed people's interactions to be less spatially bound
How would a sociologist define "action?"
operating outside of social constraints
What best describes social roles?
they give us guidelines about how to act in our social worlds
The goal of a breaching experiment is to...
break social rules in order to better understand social routines
The idea that society is held together through individuals participating in daily routines and social structures represents which sociological concept?
Social structures change through...
the cumulative actions of many individuals
Which of the following would be an example of a role?
the expectation that parents should take care of their children
What does it mean to say that social structures are enduring?
social structures are persistent patterns of behavior
The routines that shape the daily activity of an organization constitute its...
The idea that if part of society changes, other parts will adjust accordingly illustrates what theory?
Why would functionalists care about the functions that the education system fulfills in society?
the functions of schools aid in social stability
Ethnomethodologists are interested in how individuals collectively create...
A sociologist decides to study how students go about their daily routines and how they learn what they are supposed to do.
For example, how do students know to go to class when the bell rings? And why do students call teachers by their last names? A sociologist from which of the following backgrounds would be interested in this study?
How have gender expectations evolved over the last few decades?
women are more likely to work outside the home today
How do structures enable behavior?
structures give us guidelines about how to act
What do functionalist assume about societal institutions?
as part of society, institutions all contribute to the greater functioning society
A "produser" is someone who...
both produces and uses news media
Social integration is the idea that...
society is held together through shared values and social structures
Sociologists may conduct conversational analysis to understand...
the underlying structure of conversations
Ethnomethodology examines how people...
make sense of their social world
Conversational analysis examines what level of our social world?
In the United States, wealth and resources are...
Employees' respect for their boss's position and authority is an example of what kind of power?
Patricia Hill Collin's concept of the matrix of domination is best described as...
The ideology behind a socialist system focuses on...
the collective good
The Indian caste system is based on...
In the study of a patriarchal system, which type of domination would be of main interest to a sociologist?
The power of the president of the United States is legitimate because it is based on what kind of authority?
Which approach to power is most typical of feminist scholarship?
Max Weber defined legitimate power as based on...
the acceptance of and belief in authority
Which strategy contributes to empowerment?
education and training
Karl Marx focused on what level of the operation of power in a society?
All systems of stratification contain which on the following combinations of factors?
unequal distribution of resources and an ideology
The "ability to bring about an intended outcome" is an example of which approach to power?
The ideology that justifies the capitalist system of stratification is centered on...
The structure of inequality in the feudal system of medieval Europe is most similar to...
the Indian caste system
Long-term hostages tend to identify with their captor's point of view over time and voluntarily comply with their demands. This phenomenon is called...
the Stockholm syndrome
______ is an approach to power that centers on overcoming opposition.
In the socialist system, the role of the government is...
to promote equality
The fact that history textbooks still disproportionately highlight the achievements of men over those of women, and thus have the power to define men as more important and more able agents of history, is an example of what type of power?
Antonio Gramsci's concept of power as "hegemony" is based on...
the manipulation of ideas to manufacture consent
The amount of money spent in America political campaigns has...
grown dramatically in recent years
According to Max Weber, the opportunities offered by a person's economic position are known as...
The most effective way to resist power for those who are weak and low in status, power, and resources is...
Sociologists interested in systems of stratification would most likely focus on which of the following?
class, race, and genders
Systems of stratification based on an achieved status typically...
allow social mobility
A system in which women play a secondary role to men and have less than equal access to resources and positions of power is known as...
Systems of stratification based on an ascribed status...
allow virtually no social mobility
Which of the following describes the Indian caste system?
closed, without social mobility
The system of racial oppression in the United States prior to the 1960s is an example of which system of stratification?
Power that is accepted voluntarily is _____ power.
When organizations from coalitions in order to pool their resources, they are participating in...
Who defined power as the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others?
What is the principal difference between capitalist and socialist ideologies?
focus on the individual vs. the collective
Which of the following is an example of an ascribed status?
Persuasion is a strategy typical of which approach to power?
According to Max Weber, ______ is the process used by members of a dominant status group to maximize their advantage by excluding nonmembers from the benefits of membership.
According to French and Raven, _____ power is among the six bases of power in small groups and organizations.
All these answers are correct.
(legitimate, reward, and expert)
Public schools in wealthy neighborhoods are typically better funded, better equipped, and more successful than their counterparts in underprivileged areas. This inequality is a result of the residents' greater _____ power.
_______ is a condition that exists when those in power have successfully spread their ideas---and marginalized alternative viewpoints--so that their perspectives and interests are accepted widely as being universal and true.
A country that promotes the collective good, deemphasizes individual interests, and supports economic equality is built on which type of system?
Power whose legitimacy depends on a personal characteristic of the leader is referred to as ______ authority.
The ability to control and allocate resources defines which type of power?
At which level of society does domination occur?
Power that uses force to accomplish obedience is...
The main problem with a highly concentrated economic power in the context of a democracy in the United States is that it can be...
converted into political power
The queen of England's power is legitimate because it is based on what kind of authority?
Which group is usually the most important socializing agent when we are children?
In the United States children are taught, starting in kindergarten, what is considered appropriate behavior. They are expected to learn and say the Pledge of Allegiance every morning. When their teacher wants to get their attention, he or she may ring a bell or turn the lights on and off rapidly. At this time, students learn very quickly to stop whatever they are doing and to sit on the floor in front of the teacher. As they progress through school, teachers still have expectations of the behavior they would like to see in their students. What is operating in American schools?
What is the most common life-course pattern for men in the United States today?
work, marriage, parenthood
Which of the following can be an effect of a lack of early social stimulation?
All these answers are correct.
(decreased IQ scores, stunted growth, and the inability to form healthy social bonds)
What perspective examines how age, time, and place shape social identities?
the life course
At which stage do peer groups often act as a surrogate family?
Which stage in the life course is filled with contradictions that exist between culture and biology?
Learning the types of norms associated with a type of employment is known as...
The brain's ability to restructure and reorganize itself is known as brain...
Today's children and teenagers are referred to as "Generation_____."
As our society ages, a number of older adults are living longer; they are healthy and taking better care of themselves, and they still want to remain in the workforce. Many Americans own their own home. They are able to care for themselves and would prefer not to live in senior housing or any type of assisted living situation. They don't want to have to rely too much on their adult children either, as they know their adult children are busy with work and their families. When examining these trends, what emerges as a preference for many older adults?
to "age in place"
Which of the following groups is more likely to experience a shorter period of adolescence?
Which agent of socialization is most focused on teaching cultural knowledge?
Who or what are the agents of socialization who first teach us about our appropriate gender roles?
The life course often brings with it...
a different experience based on a person's gender, class, and other aspects of identity
When examining the various life changes, which, for many American adults, is the most significant life change they will experience?
having a child
Which position would argue that the gender-based wage gap is a result of the social systems that are in play?
When biology is thought to influence human behavior, this is known as...
Who coined the total institution?
At which age does living a long-term care facility or in elder housing become more likely for older Americans?
age 85 and older
Learning the ways of society is known as...
Which stage of the life course is challenging due to the United States' cultural emphasis on youth?
What might people who were born in the late twentieth century consider themselves to be?
What was the major finding from the research done in the early 1990s on children living in the Romanian orphanages?
they had physical and cognitive trauma due to receiving little social stimulation
Which theorist developed the concept of the looking glass self?
Charles Horton Cooley
What agent of socialization has become the most influential in contemporary society?
Which of the following statements accurately describes socialization?
socialization is a lifelong process
Which of the following values most likely to be taught to American children?
pursuing individual achievement
Which agent of socialization encourages the discussion of nonmaterial values?
Which theorist believes that power shapes our daily life and our sense of self?
Which position sometimes attributes the social class differences that can be found in society innate, biological differences?
Kids often play dress-up or play school as a form of...
How did the Western view of children change in the nineteenth century compared to earlier times in history?
children became an economic liability than an economic asset
Which of the following contributed to creating the gap between childhood and adulthood?
Which of the following best describes the impact of genes on behavior?
genes represent the potential for traits but do not determine the expression of those traits
How does self-reflection emerge?
through social interaction
According to sociologists, what are the societal consequences of stereotypes?
we often negatively pre-judge people based on sterotypes
Groupthink is when...
individuals reinforce the consensus of a group without being critical
A group that a person has negative feelings toward and considers its members to be below him or her is what type of group?
What is the goal of impression management?
for an individual to control the image that others have of him or her
Sociologists refer to a collection of people who interact with one another regularly and who are aware of their status as a...
What are sterotypes?
distorted and untrue generalizations about groups that overlook individual variation
What type of social contact occurs between people who are similar in terms of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and so forth?
Role distance is the idea that people...
distance themselves from a role as they carry it out
How does an achieved status differ from an ascribed one?
an achieved position is one that is obtained from one's own efforts while ascribed positions are assigned to us
What changes when a dyad relationship become a triad?
the number of possible interactions increases
What distinguishes a primary group from a secondary group?
the level of emotional attachment
What sociological concept is the idea that if someone defines a situation as real it is real in its consequences?
the Thomas theorem
What perspective does a sociologist take when he or she studies social interaction using the metaphor of theater?
How do we relate to a reference group?
it is the group we choose to judge ourselves against
How does a reference group influence us?
we behave in ways in keeping with how we think reference group members will think of us
An ascribed status is one that...
is assigned to a person despite their wishes or abilities
What do sociologists call the common understand between people that arises from shared knowledge, reality, or an experience?
Which type of social grouping is made up of people who have regular contact, significant emotional attachment to one another, and enduring relationships?
What is a social network?
collections of social ties that connect people together
Which type of social network provides emotional and other assistance to cope with stress and troubles?
What is an oligarchy?
government controlled by a powerful few
What is a social role?
the social expectations that go along with a social status
Which sociological perspective focuses on interpersonal interactions?
Solomon Asch's experiments concluded that...
the actions of others within a group promote conformist behavior
What is a status category?
a status that individuals can hold in common
Stanley Milgram found in his experiment that people...
are socialized into obeying authority figures
Which of the following is the best example of a status set?
registered nurse, father, husband, amateur golfer
When the roles of the various social statuses an individual occupies clash with one another, which of the following occurs?
What do sociologists call the collection of statuses that a person holds?
What is a bureaucracy?
a hierarchical administrative system with formal rules and procedures
What was Solomon Asch trying to uncover in his experiments?
how groups promote conformity
According to sociologists, which of the following would be a social group?
a volleyball team
Secondary groups that have a more formal structure and are formed to accomplish a specific task (like a business) are known as...
What does impersonality mean in terms of a bureaucracy?
people move in out of positions, but the structure remains
In a status hierarchy...
some statuses have more social prestige than others
According to sociologists, which of the following allows people to communicate?
shared symbols and meanings
What type of group does a person identify with and have positive feelings toward?
How are Stanley Milgram's and Solomon Asch's experiments?
they both found that people are prone to conforming behavior
What do sociologists mean by "social constructions?"
our social world is constructed through social interaction
Which type of social grouping is made up of people who come together to accomplish a specific task and interact with one another in a relatively impersonal way?
When the responsibilities or expectations of a single status compete with one another, which of the following occurs?
From the functionalist perspective, self-policing is...
necessary for both the individual and society
Individuals typically engage in deviant behavior only on a temporary basis. Long-term deviance requires...
the support of a deviant subculture
Social institutions charged with the enforcement or norms and rules and the power to punish violators and referred to as...
agents of social control
We mostly abide by the rules and norms imposed on us by our culture because nonconformity is typically punished and conformity rewarded. This social mechanism is referred to as...
A behavior comes to be defined as deviant because...
it is publicly labeled as deviant
How does deviance contribute to group solidarity?
deviance unites people against a common enemy
The prevailing explanation of alcoholism is now that of an illness. In the past, what was the main perspective on the causes of alcoholism?
Which rationale for punishment advocates efforts to resocialize offenders by improving their training and education to increase their chances for reintegration?
Within the nudist community, wearing no clothes whenever possible is an example of what type of behavior?
Some have argued that recidivism rates indicate the American criminal justice system ______ in preventing chronic crime.
Michel Foucault suggests that because we have internalized social norms and are ready to self-police, we are subject to social control in the form of...
A crime motivated by a bias against someone's race, gender, sexual orientation, or disability is called a...
Those defined as deviant often suffer a _____ attached to their deviance. It is associated with shame, loss of status, discrimination, and social isolation.
Why is white-collar crime rarely prosecuted, and why do its perpetrators typically go unpunished?
white-collar perpetrators have high status and power
A person comes to be considered a deviant when publicly marked with such a designation, and typically acknowledges this definition as part of his or her identity. This is a definition of what theory?
What percentage of adolescent girls are dissatisfied with their body weight and see themselves as overweight?
The percentage of obese adults in the United States is now...
higher than ever
According to Emile Durkeim's definition, an act is deviant or criminal because it...
offends social norms
Which statement best describes recidivism rates in the United States?
two-thirds are rearrested within three years
What has been the trend in crime rates since the 1990s?
People follow social rules and norms because...
they have internalized them
The medicalization of deviance can also be reversed. Which of the following is an example of demedicalization?
the current definition of homosexuality
Which factor define boundary between normal and deviant?
The belief that offenders need to be incarcerated to eliminate threat and prevent harm to the public is an example of which rationale for punishment?
Power is an important factor to consider in the understanding of deviance because...
some groups have the power to define deviance
Divorce was once considered deviant, and in many parts of the world, it still is. Americans today hardly think of divorce as something abnormal. Which reason is responsible for the redefinition of divorce as no longer deviant?
change in social context
What did Emile Durheim mean by collective conscience?
shared values, norms, and beliefs
Deviant subcultures provide their members with...
an identity and self-worth
The tendency to define a deviant behavior as an illness, for which treatment is best left to medical professionals, is referred to as ______ deviance.
Deviance is learned through interaction with members of a deviant group. This defines which theoretical perspective?
differential association theory
In which of the following areas of the United States do most executions take place?
the southern states
Our behavior is regulated by the degree to which we are attached to major social institutions. This defines which theoretical perspective?
From the functionalist perspective, crime serves a purpose in society. Which function does crime perform?
defines boundaries between right and wrong
Deviance tends to occur when a major discrepancy exists between culturally defined goals and the means of achieving those goals. Which theoretical perspective of deviance does this statement represent?
Some people hope that marijuana will soon be legal. They hope for the ______ of marijuana.
What is the most widely recognized form of electronic surveillance on the internet?
What we define as normal and abnormal behavior depends on...
Deviance is best defined as which of the following?
behavior that does no conform to norms and expectations
What does the crime rate figure represent?
crime incidence relative to population size
In the final stage of the medicalization of deviance, the medical definition of deviance becomes accepted and usually goes uncontested because...
A cultural shift in which a formerly deviant behavior is reclassified as acceptable is referred to as...
Eating disorders are the result of which type of behavior?
What factor has significantly contributed to smaller family sizes?
women waiting longer to marry
Approximately what percent of marriages in the United States are interracial or interethinc?
What is meant by the term "open-mate selection?"
people are free to choose the person with whom they form a family
Kinship is traced over multiple generations through...
The concept of karma is a part of which major religion?
In the 1925 Scopes trial, a high school teacher in Tennessee was prosecuted for teaching...
Which of the following accurately describes the divorce rate in the United States as of 2009?
began to decrease in the 1980s
Why was divorce a difficult option during the 1950s?
all these answers are correct
(it was associated with social stigma, there were few economic opportunities for women, there were strict divorce laws)
The average number of births per woman is known as the...
What patterns can be observed in the median age of marriage for men and women?
from the 1960s to the present time, median age for both men and women has increased
During which decade did the fertility rate in the United States hit its lowest point?
Ultimately, what is the meaning of "family?"
Which religious group in the United States has experienced the largest lost of membership?
Which of the following statements accurately describes the American family of the 1950s?
heterosexual couples were the "norm"
In Emile Durkheim's view, the Bible is an example of...
Which group did Max Weber see as significantly contributing to the rise of capitalism?
Which of the following is the LEAST common form of marriage in the world?
Which racial/ethnic group is LEAST likely to raise children in a one-parent household?
What is the largest non-Christian religious group in the United States?
Who believed that religion served to create a meaningful reality in which to live?
When Jewish boys and girls are thirteen years old, they are considered to be "coming of age." The age of thirteen was chosen because it roughly coincides with physical puberty. Prior to the age of thirteen, parents are responsible for their children following Jewish law and tradition. After this age, the child is responsible. Boys celebrate a bar mitzvah and girls celebrate a bat mitzvah. This involves being called to read the Torah. In Emile Durkheim's view, what do the bar and bat mitzvah represent?
The reallocation of property and wealth when someone dies is known as...
Which world religion claims the largest following?
The Brady Bunch was a popular television series in the late 1960s to the mid-1970s, a time in which divorce rates were increasing. Mike had three sons and Carol had three daughters. They met, married, and merged their families. During the first few seasons, the family had to adjust to their new circumstances, how to live together, accept step-sibilings, and become a new family unit. Today, these types of families are more common. What does the Brady Bunch represent?
a blended family
In modern industrial societies, how is a descent traced?
Some religious groups' practices and beliefs are at odds with the dominant culture. Those with power in society often refer to those groups as...
The historical "idealized model" of the family was most often found, among which group in the United States?
Methodist Christianity is an example of a...
According to Emile Durkheim, humans create gods and religions to embody shared values of a society. He termed these shared values...
the collective conscience
Which theoretical perspective would focus on how families carry out necessary tasks?
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population is not affiliated with any religion?
Which of the following is NOT an element of Emile Durkheim's definition of religion?
a belief in god
The ethic reciprocity is also known as...
the "golden rule"
Muhammad and Alia are in their twenties. They share a household and an intimate sexual relationship with one another. They feel that their arrangement works well, since they are able to share the rent, the bills, and household responsibilities with one another. As economic conditions worsen, they see more of their friends in this type of relationship as well. Also, both of their parents are divorced and Muhammad and Alia are both concerned that this could be a path that they could follow. Muhammad and Alia's social relationship is best described as...
During which decade was the traditional family idealized?
A religious movement that relies on the literal interpretation of sacred texts is referred to as...
Why do sociologist study religion?
to understand the role it plays in social life
People in what part of the United States report the highest levels of religious attendance?
In most societies, what typically determines acceptable sexual relationships?
In today's society there are many responsibilities and distractions that require a person's attention. On a daily basis, most people focus upon issues of work, their household, their finances, and other ordinary aspect of daily life. Few have time to think about religion, the meaning of life, or other supernatural issues. In Emile Durkheim's view, the issues focused on are...
Sociologists refer to two or more people related by birth or social commitment, who share resources, care for any dependents, and often maintain close emotional relationships, as...
What is the size of the median household today?
Iman, her mother, and her grandmother all live together in the same household. This is an example of a _____ family.
On which solution do United States policymakers typically focus when trying to address the challenges faced by single parents?
A form of Christian belief dedicated to combating poverty and other forms of social injustice is called...
Which theory asserts that the importance of religion has declined in the face of modernity?
Which group is most likely to still be living with their parents?
who are younger
A truly free-market form of capitalism produces...
an enormous concentration of wealth and power
A political system that relies on citizens' active political participation in decision making, such as in referendums, is called a...
Which of the following best describes the twenty-first-century Tea Party in the United States?
it is loosely organized collection of activists, most of whom support conservative Republican ideas
Free-market, or laissez-faire, capitalism promotes...
an unregulated market
Based on the insights of Emile Durkheim, economic arrangements depend on ____ that results from social relationships. When this disappears economies collapse.
As part of the New Deal, the government intervened to address extreme unemployment by implementing...
a public works program
Which theory suggests that capitalist and socialist economies are becoming increasingly similar?
According to Max Weber, what type of power do governments represent?
What theory deals with how, in order to avoid social isolation, people do not voice their opinions on controversial topics when they perceive their perspective as marginal?
the spiral of silence
The government defines terrorism as political acts of violence perpetrated by...
Selling marijuana is illegal, even though an apparent demand exists, and the potential for revenue if sales were legalized is not insignificant. This is an example of the fact that economies...
reflect cultural values
Wealthy individuals and corporations have the power to influence government policy as well as public opinion through their influence over the media, which is why they enjoy disproportionate power in society. This is consistent with the definition of which theory of power?
class domination theory
Which strategy from the civilian sector has the military embraced in recent years?
Economic life is social because a functioning economic system is predicated on the existence of ______ to support economic relationships.
a cohesive and well-functioning society
The struggle over power in society is called...
The contemporary economy depends on...
How do the media contribute to the spiral of silence?
ignoring minority views
In the all-volunteer military...
the working class and the poor are over represented
The New Deal policies introduced in 1933 were an effort to...
stabilize and revive the system of capitalism
Which type of voting system is used to elect members to the U.S. House and Senate?
Literally translated, democracy means...
rule by the people
Which theory of power is most closely based on the work of Karl Marx, which views the economic system as the primary source of power?
class domination theory
Which theory argues that political power is fragmented among different competing groups?
In which type of voting system does the candidate with the most votes win the office?
______ was an important factor in both the savings and loan crisis in the 1980s and the financial crisis of 2008.
Government assistance is _____ to the success of a business.
The United Kingdom is an example of a...
In order to adopt the military culture, soldiers must undergo...
The North Korean government is run by a central ruling party that severely restricts the civil liberties of its citizens. Which type of government does North Korea represent?
an authoritarian government
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an example of a...
In which type of democracy do voters elect the head of state?
A government run by a central ruling party with a self-appointed leader is called a...
Which theory suggests that power is concentrated in the hands of a small dominant group?
In which type of political system do citizens elect delegates who carry out the policy making processes of government?
What did Max Weber mean by the term social economics?
the interconnection between economy and social lif
Which of the following is often true about the relationship between media outlets and their corporate sponsors?
media outlets are usually not critical of their sponsors in news stories or reports
From the sociologist perspective, what is consumption?
choosing, purchasing, and using goods
What is the biggest determinant of the digital divide?
_____ refers to the gap between those who have access to computers and the internet and those who do not.
the digital divide
A movie featuring a star drinking a popular beverage is what form of advertising?
Why is the digital divide so determined by class?
because media, and access to them, require financial resources
_______ is when media depictions of the world come to replace the experience of individuals in the "real" world.
Why would sociologists be interested in the "CSI effect?"
it shows how viewers can be socialized by television content
What was the key to the development of new media?
linking digital media to the internet
What form of advertising relies on targeting people based on their prior purchasing patterns?
_____ theory states that the media do not directly tell people what to think, but they do significantly influence what people think about.
Which of the following are considered media?
all these answers are correct
(communication technologies such as the internet, television, film, and newspapers, companies that produce media content)
What is media convergence?
the merging of different media forms
According to Karl Marx, alienation is when...
workers become isolated and separated
Which of the following would be an example of commodification?
former religious holidays becoming shopping occasions
An active audience is one that...
actively interprets media content
What is commodification?
the process of transforming all things into products that can be bought and sold
_____ theory argues that after repeated and long-term exposure to media depictions as reality
When media corporations from wealthier nations export so many products to poorer nations that they come to dominate the local culture, it is known as...
How has the structure of the media evolved over the past couple of decades?
media companies have grown in size because of mergers
What does what we buy say about us?
all these answers are correct
(which social groups we feel we belong to, how we identify ourselves, how much money we have to spend)
Which of the following is among the functions of the media?
all the answers are correct
(agent of socialization, source of information, promoter of ideology)
What do sociologists call it when a society emphasizes shopping and possessions as a road to personal happiness?
What does it mean to say that traditional media were only involved in one-way communication?
they did not rely on audience participation
Which theoretical approach would emphasize media's role in social integration thorough the construction of a national audience that shares a common culture
What provides the most revenue for most forms of media?
Which of the following is an example of user-generated content?
a man posts a video of his cat on youtube
Under capitalism, workers...
sell their labor power to others in exchange for wages
If media ownership becomes more concentrated, how could the ideology function of the media be affected?
the views of the powerful would be increasingly dominant in the media
What is one of the consequence of the concentration of media ownership?
fewer perspectives are presented, and those that are presented represent the concerns of corporate powers
What do sociologists traditionally call media that are intended to reach a relatively anonymous audience?
A media company acquires a film production company, a film editing firm, and a film distribution firm. By owning different stages of movie making, the company is _____ integrated.
What influence how active audiences interpret media images?
all these answers are correct
(gender, class, race/ethnicity)
What is planned obsolescence?
intentional design of goods to ensure a loss of utility in a short period of time
The media often promote an ideology that...
justifies the existence of social inequality
What is one outcome of worker alienation that researchers have found?
they buy more things to cope with dissatisfaction and unhappiness
Which of the following is an example of cultural imperialism?
a major american movie company having the number one movie worldwide
What term is used when a media company owns different forms of media (like television networks and newspapers)?
What is the term for the various types of knowledge, skills, and other cultural resources someone possesses?
_______ is the distinctive set of norms that shape daily behavior and interactions on the job.
What is tracking?
placing students into different curricular paths by ability level
Sociologists have found that educational outcomes are better in...
smaller schools with a communal structure
______ education is when students receive instruction in both their native language and a second language.
What is one consequence of the gender division of labor?
men have greater access to higher paying jobs
How do schools act as an occupational sorter?
through different programs, schools prepare people for various occupational roles
Which social institution teaches not only knowledge and skills but also cultural norms and values?
_______ is when managers study workflows and develop work practices that focus on increasing efficiency?
How does schooling differ from education?
schooling is the process of instruction, whereas education is the social institution
What does hidden curriculum do?
it teaches students the central values and beliefs of society
Which aspect of schooling would a functionalist study?
how the educational system fits into the larger society
Which of the following is NOT a function of schools in which sociologists have been interested?
entertainment for kids
What is literacy?
the ability to read and write
The phrase "gender division of labor" refers to gender differences in...
access to jobs
What was the primary way that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) evaluated student performance?
through extensive standardized testing
How does tracking limit social mobility?
it locks students in lower tracks into a path early on
A sociologist asks 100 people which jobs they find to be the most prestigious within society. He then ranks the jobs based on the responses from the 100 people he interviewed. What type of scale is the sociologist constructing?
Emile Durkheim believed schools teach children the central beliefs and values of society. He referred to this as...
A sociologist interested in social reproduction would be most likely to study how schools...
What have sociologists concluded about the relationship between occupational prestige and job satisfaction?
a high-status job does not guarantee job satisfaction
Why do American companies outsource jobs to other countries?
they want to take advantage of cheaper labor costs in other countries
Why are unions created?
they are a way for employees to have a collective voice
______ is the idea that individuals with advanced educational degrees monopolize access to the most rewarding jobs within a society.
How do business owners typically exhibit power in the workplace?
by making broad decisions regarding how the business runs
What are the goals of school choice programs?
to give families options for deciding where to send their children to school
Online higher education...
makes college more accessible for a wider range of students
Which of the following accurately describes the connection between education and income level?
in general, more education is linked to higher average incomes
What did the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision state?
racial separation in schooling was unconstitutional
Occupational prestige measures indicate...
collective attitudes about various jobs in terms of status
Why do sociologists care about occupational satisfaction?
it is the thought to be a big part of how happy people are in their lives overall
Students also viewed
Soc 1010 Test 1
Sociology Chapters 1-2
SOC111 Ch 2
QUIZ: Unit 2: Culture and Socialization
Sets found in the same folder
Soc 1010 Test 1
chapter 7 sociology
Sociology 1113 Exam 1
SYG *Exam 1* (Study Guide)
Indicate whether these statements best reflect a folkway (F), a more (M), a law (L), or a value (V). a. norm against cursing aloud in church b. norm encouraging eating three meals daily c. idea of progress d. norm against burning a national flag e. norm encouraging sleeping in a bed f. norm prohibiting murder g. norm against overtime parking h. idea of freedom
Complete the sentence using each term once. a. monogamy b. polyandry c. polygyny d. exogamy e. endogamy f. homogamy g. patrilineal h. blended family i. dual-employed marriage j. boomerang kids. ________ is a family formed with children from a previous marriage.
Can secret observation of people ever be considered ethical? Why or why not?
Many people appear to be less interested in religion during their teenage years. This might be seen in failing church attendance for the age group. Using your sociological imagination suggest some reasons for this apparent lack of interest. Consider developmental (age) and social factors. Depending on your answer what suggestion might you make to religious organisations looking for ideas on how to keep teenagers involved and active?
Recommended textbook solutions
Operations Management: Sustainability and Supply Chain Management
Barry Render, Chuck Munson, Jay Heizer
Information Technology Project Management: Providing Measurable Organizational Value
Jack T. Marchewka
Human Resource Management
John David Jackson, Patricia Meglich, Robert Mathis, Sean Valentine
Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Samuel R. Sommers, Timothy D. Wilson
Other Quizlet sets
Sociology 211: Kansas State 2020
Anth 101 Exam 3
Sociology Test Chapters 1-4
Anthro 101 exam