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Terms in this set (79)
Is synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA
Messenger RNA, carries information out of the nucleus from the DNA to the site of protein synthesis.
Synthesis of a polypeptide using the information in the mRNA
Makes protein, also the site of translation
RNA molecules that function as enzymes
Nucleus- using mRNA
Transcription occurs in the ___________.
When mma strand moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm.
DNA, RNA, Protein
__________ to ___________ to ___________.
3- base code of base pairs in DNA
Provides pattern for sequence of nucleotides in a RNA transcript
Uses DNA template to make RNA chain in the nucleus, able to start a chain from scratch, does not need a primer.
A specific nucleotide sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and begins transcript.
Signals the end of transcription.
Three Stages of Transcription
Mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.
TATA-Box Binding Protein
Binds the promoter DNA and bends it at almost a 90 degree angle; first step in transcription.
3' Poly A Tail
Protection cap at the 3' of mRNA, consisting of multiple adenine, the amount of adenines added to the 3' end is important for the stability of the mRNA.
A specifically modified Guanine is placed on the 5' end of the mRNA it helps to protect the mRNA from nucleases and helps it bind the ribosomes.
Removal of portions of the RNA transcript (introns) that will not be included in the mRNA; also includes the joining together of the remaining portions (exon).
Long noncoding stretched of nucleotides.
Expressed gene portions, that exit the nucleus.
Large assembly of RNA and protein molecules that perform RNA splicing.
Transfer. Brings amino acid to ribosomes, which adds each amino acid to a polypeptide chain.
Site in the ribosome, decoding the mRNA into various amino acids and assisting in translation.
Holds the tRNA growing polypeptide chain.
Holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain.
Where discharged tRNA's of ribosomes leave the ribosome.
Amino acids are added one by one to the previous amino acids a the c terminus.
Peptides that target the polypeptide to endoplasmic reticulum.
Changes in a single nucleotide pair of a gene.
Has no observable effect on the phenotype.
Cause one amino acid to be replaced with a different amino acid.
Nonsense (Stop Codon) Mutation
A change in an amino acid codon to a STOP codon; results in truncated protein.
Insertions or Deletions
Are additions or losses of nucleotide pair in a gene.
DNA cutting enzyme.
Short sequences of DNA that repeat over and over.
A cells genetic information.
The structure into which DNA molecules are packed into.
Building material for chromosomes.
Joint copies of the original chromosomes.
The division of the genetic material in the nucleus.
The division of the cytoplasm.
Mitotic M Phase
Where cytokinesis takes place.
Account for about 90% of the cell cycle. Divided into three phases.
1. G1 Phase: Cell Grows.
2. S Phase: Duplication of the chromosomes.
3. G2 Phase: Grows more as it prepares for cell division.
The centrosomes move away from each other.
The nuclear envelope fragments, the start to attach their microtubule to kinetochores.
The centrosomes are now at opposite ends, the metaphase plate is not aligned.
The sister cells begin to break apart their microtubule begin to separate from the middle pulling away their kinetochores with them.
Telophase: Nuclei reappear, per each daughter cell. The division of the daughter cells is not complete however still joint from the cytoplasm.
Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm.
A structure made up of proteins that have assembled at each centromere.
The transmission of traits from one generation to the other.
The scientific study of heredity variation.
The vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
All cells in the body, except the gametes and their precursors.
A genes specific location along a chromosome.
Chromosomes that determine an individuals gender.
Any cell with two chromosome sets.
Cells that contain only a single cell of chromosomes.
The union of gametes, culminating in fusion in their nuclei.
A fertilized egg, a diploid because it contains two sets of haploid cells.
Only cells in the human body not produced by mitosis.
The gametes, they develop from specialized germ cells in the gonads.
How long is the human DNA stretched out?
Duplication of chromosomes occur entirely in what phase of mitosis?
What is an Aster?
A radial array of short micro tubules that extend from centrosome.
Contracting microfilament rings that assists with cytokinesis.
A protein released by cells that stimulate other cells to divide.
The spread of cancer cells to places far from the origin.
Is the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.
The partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuels that occur without the use of oxygen.
Chemical reactions where one or more electrons are transferred from one reactant to another.
Loss of electrons by a substance.
The addition of an electron in a substance.
Electron donor, in a generalized reaction.
Electron receptor, in a generalized reaction.
Electron carrier, coenzyme, involved in glycolysis. Well suited as an electron carrier for its ability to cycle between reduce NADH and oxidize NAD+.
What is the general "downhill route" that most electron travel during cellular respiration?
Glucose> NADH > electron transport chain > oxygen
What are the three metabolic stages of cellular respiration?
2. Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle
3. Oxidative phosphorylation
The initial stage begins in the cytosol, begins the degradation prices by breaking down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
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