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How many years were there between Japan's invasion of Manchuria and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
Why did President Roosevelt propose the Lend-Lease Program in 1941?
to send aid to the Allies in Europe
In addition to the Pacific and Europe, what other region of the world became a battlefield in WWII?
During WWII, many Japanese Americans in California were
rounded up and placed in government internment camps.
Which battles turned the tide of war against the Japanese in the Pacific?
Battle of the Coral Sea and Midway
Women made significant contributions to the war effort by
serving as radio operators, mechanics, and pilots.
The American decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan
may have prevented thousands of American deaths in the invasion of Japan.
The United States government issued ration cards
to limit the amount of goods individuals could buy.
The government of the Unites States paid for the war effort by
borrowing from banks, issuing war bonds, raising taxes.
In 1936, Hitler and Mussolini joined in what would become known as the ______ between Rome and Berlin.
Under General Henri-Philippe Pétain, Vichy France adopted a policy of ________ with Hitler's Germany.
By 1939, the Schutzstaffel, known as the SS, was formed as a secret Nazi police to guard political prisoners in the .
The Japanese admiral who designed the attack at Pearl Harbor also planned a battle at ________ to defeat the remainder of the American Pacific fleet.
President Roosevelt authorized the ________ in order to beat the Germans in developing an atomic weapon.
Thousands of ________ volunteered to fight in the United States military despite their Japanese ancestry.
What global economic conditions led to the political and economic turmoil in Stalin's Soviet Union?
Because of its affirmed goals of abolishing most existing governments and creating a worldwide Communist society, the Soviet Union was mainly isolated economically from the rest of the world. On top of that, the world was going through a Great Depression. These unstable ecomonic conditions led to the political and economic turmoil in Stalin's Soviet Union.
How were Fascist dictators able to rise to power in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union following WWI?
Following WWI, many people were angry and wanted change in their government. Fascist dictators in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union took advantage of this fact. They promised significant, quick change and progress to win peoples approval. In addition, they used violent oppression to silece those who opposed them.
What role did Germany and Italy play in the Spanish Civil War in 1936?
Germany and Italy both provided planes, tanks, and soldiers to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. Their aid attracted international attention when Hitler's Condor Legion bombed the northern Spanish town of Guernica into ruins. Attacking on a market day, German pilots incinerated the town center and fired on civilians from the air.
What reaction did Britain have to Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939?
After Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, British leaders warned him that any further German expansion would risk war. However, ss Germany overran Poland in less than a month, Britain watched helplessly from hundreds of miles away, unable to help Poland in time. After Poland fell, Britain still held back its trooops, fearing tremendous losses.
What advantages did Britain have over Germany in the Battle of Britain?
One advantage that Britain had over Germany was that British soldiers would be fighting from home. The Germans would have to fly over the channel to get there, which meant the fighters had a limited amount of fuel to fight whereas the British fighters would have more fuel and the ability to re-fuel and come back. In addition, Britain had a radar that could detect German planes in the channel.
Why was Japan interested in developing an empire in the Pacific?
One reason Japan was interested in developing an empire in the Pacific was that it needed mass amounts of resources for their rapidly developing country which they didn't have on their mainland. Japan wanted these resources so it could strengthen its military and modernize its economy in order to defend itself. It was also a way to expand Japan's sphere of influence.
How did the United States react to the growing conflict in Europe?
At first, the United States chose neutrality in the conflict in Europe. But as conditions continued to worsen, American opinion shifted even further against the Axis Powers, and the United States focused on providing supplies to Britain. Debate over the American role of the war grew steadily, but it would take nothing short of a direct attack to fully engage the United States in war.
What actions finally caused the United States to join the side of the Allies in WWII?
On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japan attacket Pearl Harbor. Half of the Pacific Fleet lay at anchor in Pearl Harbor, crowded into an area less than three miles square. Japanese planes bombed and strafed the fleet and the airfields nearby, killing and wounding thousands of Americans and destroying military equipment. The next day, Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan, and Congress passed a war resolution.
How did President Roosevelt and Congress prepare the United States for WWII?
In September 1940, in order to prepare the United States' armed forces for the possibility of war, Congress authorized the first peacetime draft in the nation's history. The Selective Training and Service Act required all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service. President Roosevelt called upon industries to move quickly into the production of wartime goods, and taxes were raised to finance the war.
How were various ethnic groups in the United States affected by the United States involvement in WWII?
To win the war, the United States needed to draw upon all its resources, including its people. For several groups in American society, this need opened up opportunities that had not existed before the war. As a result of new policies preventing discrimiation, African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and other ethnic groups had easier times getting jobs and were able to share in some of the war-time prosperity. On the other hand, Japanese Americans suffered official discrimination during the war. As a result of prejudices and fears, the government decided to remove all "aliens" from the West Coast. Japanese Americans were removed from their homes and interned in camps in remote areas far from the coast.
What were the goals of the Allied nations after WWII?
Although not all of the Allied nations agreed on what to do after the war, they all wanted peace and security for their countries. They agreed on the division of Germany into American, British, French, and Soviet occupation zones. They also agreed on the creation of the United Nations, a new international peacekeeping organization, in which members would try to settle their differences peacefully and would promote justice and cooperation in solving international problems.
What differences of opinions did the Soviets and the Americans have about postwar Europe?
Tensions over Poland illustrated the differing views helf by American and Soviet leaders. The United States had fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe and hoped to see these goals achieved in the postwar world. However, after losing more than 20 million people during the war and suffering widespread destruction, the Soviet Union was determined to rebuild in ways that would protect its own interests. One way was to establish satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination, on the western borders of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union wanted Poland under its control.
Explain how the term Cold War came to be used to describe Soviet/U.S. relations.
The Cold War was so named because it never involved direct military actions. Since both sides possesed nuclear weapons, and because their use would guarantee their mutual destruction, neither side ever made a move. The Cold War was a period of very high tension but little action.
Why did the U.S. advocate the Marshall Plan for the European nations?
The United States wanted, at all costs, to prevent the spread of communism. United States leaders reasoned that the best way to prevent the spread of communism would be to strengthen the economies and societies of needy European countries. The Marshall Plan called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery for the war, and said that the United States would support the program with financial aid.
When did the Soviet Union develop a nuclear weapon and how did this affect the already strained relations with the United States?
The Soviet Union developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. Truman's response to the Soviet atomic threat was to forge ahead with new weaponry to maintain America's nuclear superiority. This turned into an arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, heightening the tension in an already strained relationship between the two.
How did the U.S. respond to Chinese Communist expansion in Asia?
Many Americans viewed the "loss of China" as a stain on the record of the Truman administration. Members of Congress and others who held this view called for greater efforts to protect the rest of Asia from communism. Some Americans also began to suspect the loyalties of those involved in making military and foreign policy.
What was the U.N. Policy in Korea?
When President Truman brought the issue of North Korean agression to the U.N., the Soviet delegation walked out in protest, and thus could not excercise its veto. The United States gained unanimous approval for resolutions that branded North Korea as an agressor and that called on member states to help defend South Korea and restore peace. The U.N. set up the Unites Nations command and asked the United states to choose the commander of the U.N. forces.
What were the effects of the Korea War in Asia and in the United States?
The Korean War led to a huge increase in military spending in the United States. The military establishment became more powerful as it developed links to the corporate and scientific communities. The Korean War also helped to shape future U.S policy in Asia. Hoping that Japan could help to maintain the balance of power in the Pacific, the United States signed a peace treaty with that nation in September 1951. In addition, the Korean War futher poisoned relations with Communist China, leading to a diplomatic standoff that would last more than 20 years.
How did Senator Joseph McCarthy fuel American fears of a Red Scare?
Communist agression in Korea was already heightening Americans' fear of communism when Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy presented a list of 205 people "who were known to the secretary of state as being members of the Communist Party and who, nevertheless are still working and shaping policy at the State Department." In the Cold War atmosphere of 1950, McCarthy's charged quickly gained support, fueling American fears of a Red Scare.
How did the Soviet launch of the Sputnik create more fear of Communist domination of the world?
The Soviet launch of the Sputnik created a threat to the world. The realization that the rocket used to launch Sputnik could carry a hydrogen bomb to American shores added to American shock and fear. Communist domination of the world was seeming to become a more realistic possibility.
Hollywood studio effort to suppress actors, writers, and producers suspected of subversive activities
discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia, Southern Europe, and Central Europe
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
a plan to use force to defend Middle Eastern countries against Communist aggression
How many years passed between the Soviet development of the atomic bomb and the Sputnik launch?
What evidence shows that the United States feared the rise of Communism?
Eisenhower Doctrine, execution of Rosenbergs, McCarthy investigations
What was the main cause of the Cold War"
Communist control of China and the Soviet atomic weapon tests in 1949.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was designed to
check the aggressive policies of the Soviet Union.
Eisenhower warned Americans about the military-industrial complex because he thought
weapons manufacturers were too powerful
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
A. were executed for supposedly giving the Russians the secret to the atomic bomb.
Smear tactics were used by _______ to bring suspects before the HUAC on charges of supporting Communism.
Cited by Congress for contempt, the ________ chose not to respond to the questions of Senator McCarthy.
The Soviet Union established a military defense treaty with the countries of Eastern Europe called the .
What new types of business developed following WWII?
Following the war, many blue color jobs of the past had falled to automation. Developments in technology spurred economic growth. Businesses produced hundreds of new products, such as dishwashers and gas powered lawnmowers, aimed at saving the consumer time and money. Televisions, computers, and transistors revolutionized the market. The franchise system became popular businesses such as restaurants, clothing stores, and automobile muffler shops.
What new consumer invention took the nation by storm in the 1950s?
Americans fell in love with television in the 1950s. The technology for television had been developed throughout the late 1920s and 1930s, but then stalled during the war. After World War II, television became enormously popular.
What peacetime applications were discussed for atomic energy?
An entirely new industry, the generation of electrial power through the use of atomic energy, resulted from the research that produced the atomic bomb. Nuclear fission, wihch involves splitting uranium or plutonium atoms, could produce a huge explosion if the reaction occured quickly. But fission, carefully controlled, could also produce heat to generate steam and drive electrical tubines. These peactime applicatios for atomic energy were heavily discussed at the time.
Why did the transistor radio become so popular?
Before the transistor, radios were large models. The transistor radio was small and portable, meaning you could take it anywhere. This was very popular, espescially among the youth.
Why was there a revival of religious interest in the 1950s?
In the 1950s, Americans, who had drifted away from religion in earlier years, flocked back to their churches and synagogues. The renewed interest in religion was a response in part to the Cold War struggle against "godless communism." Some looked to religion to find hope in the face of the threat of nuclear war.
What was the reason that the Taft-Hartley Act was passed?
In the spring of 1946, a railroad strike caused a major disruption in the economy. In response, Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. This would allow the President to declare an 80-day cooling-off period during which strikers had to return to work, in strikes in industries that affected the national interest.
Who was Strom Thurman and what was his platform?
Strom Thurmond was the governor of South Carolina. In 1948, the southern wing of the Democratic Party, Protesting a moderate civil rights plank in the party platform, split off from the main party. These segregationalists formed the States' Rights, or Dixiecrat Party, and nominated Governor J. Strom Thurmond for President.
Explain modern republicanism.
Modern republicanism was President Eisenhower's approach to government. Modern Republicanism called for cutting spending, reducing taxes, and balancing the budget. Also called "dynamic conservatism," Eisenhower intended it to be "conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings."
What is NASA and what were its goals?
The National Aeronatics and Space Administration is an independent agency for space exploration. When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, many Americans grew concerned that the United States was losing its competitive edge. Others feared a nuclear attack would soon follow. In 1958, the United States government responded be creating NASA. Its goals were to jump-start the United States space program and to gain a competitive edge with the Soviet Union.
The invention of the transistor was crucial for the development of what other industries?
computers and electronics
What important medical research was conducted in London in 1953
the double-helix model for DNA is formulated
What two laws were passed in 1958 that had an impact on science in the United States?
National Defense Educational Act and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Congress passed legislation called the _______ to improve science and math education in U.S. public schools.
National Defense Education Act
The name ______ was given to President Eisenhower's plan to slow the growth of the government and reduce the national budget.
Strikers were forced to return to work under the _____ if the strike interfered with national industries.
President _____ became the first presidential candidate to campaign in the all black community of Harlem.
Truman devised a program called the ______ that was based on the programs of former President Roosevelt.
Why did many Americans want to change the status of race relations in the United States following WWII?
After the war, the campaign for civil rights began to accelerate. Millions of people believed that the time had come to demand that the nation live up to its creed that all are created equal before the law. Several factors contributed to this growing demand. Among these factors were increased African American migration, the New Deal, World War II, and the rise of the NAACP.
What other minorities began to demand civil rights in the 1960s?
African Americans were not the only minority group to demand equal rights after World War II. Mexican Americans, for example also struggled to achieve equality. Native Americans faced a unique situation when the government adopted a new approach to their situation known as "termination," which sought to eliminate reservations all together. The policy of termination met with resistence, and in time the federal government discarded it.
How did the Supreme Court rule in Brown v. Board of Education?
In 1951, Oliver Brown sued the Topeka, Kansas, Board of Education to allow his 8-year old daughter Linda to attend a school that only white children were allowed to attend. After appeals, the case reached the Supreme Courth. On May, 7 1954, the Supreme Court issued its historic ruling. In a unanimous decision, the Court declared that the "separate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional and could not be applied to public education.
Explain the philosophy of non-violence in the civil rights movement?
Nonviolent protest, a peaceful way of protesting against restrictive racial oponents, was very common in the civil rights movement. Nonviolent protesters do not resist reven when attacked by opponents. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which advocated for nonviolent protest set out this principle: "To understand that nonviolence is not a symbol of weakness or cowardice, but as Jesus demonstrated, nonviolent resistance transforms weakness into strength and breeds courage in the face of danger."
How were students and other young people given a voice in the civil rights movement?
Many students and other young people were very active in the civil rights movement. In 1960, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was founded for students active in the struggle. Students who participated were able to meet with important civil rights leaders and committees to voice their opinions.
How were the Freedom Riders treated in many southern cities?
Freedom Riders were not treated well in many southern cities. In Anniston, Alabama, a heavily armed white mob met the first bus at the terminal. The bus attempted to leave, and the mob slashed its tires, surrounded it, held the door closed, and a member of the mob threw a firebomb into the bus. The riders escaped before the bus burst into flames, but many were beaten by the mob as they stumbled out of the vehicle, choking on the smoke.
Why did President Kennedy support the integration of the University of Mississippi?
In 1961, James Meredith, an African American Air Force veteran, attempted to transfer to the all-white University of Mississippi. After being rejected, Meredith got help from the NAACP, which filed a lawsuit claiming that Meredith's application was turned down on racial grounds. The Supreme Couth upheld Meredith's claim. Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, however declared that Meredith could not enroll, regardless of what the court said. The issue became a standoff between the governor and the Justice Department, and President Kennedy sent federal marshals to acompany Meredith to the campus.
How did photographs of violent scenes in the civil rights movement affect American opinion?
Television camera brought the scenes of violene to people across the country. Even those unsympathetic to the civil rights movement were appalled. Photographs and videos of violent scenes gained support for the civil rights movement.
Why was gaining the right to vote an important goal for many African Americans?
African Americans were denied to right to vote while whites were allowed that right. This bothered African Americans because they felt that they should have rights equal to those enjoyed by whites. Secondly, African Americans wanted the right to vote because it is the basis for democracy.
founded in 1911 to assist African Americans moving into urban areas from the South
National Urban League
head of the NAACP who later became the first African American Supreme Court Justice
organized by CORE with aid from SNCC to test southern states' compliance with Supreme Court rulings
call for all African Americans to unite and build a community separate from white Americans
How did assassinations of key leaders in America affect the civil rights movement?
Important leaders in the movement were lost
Why did Eisenhower send troops into Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957?
to facilitate integration at Central High School
How many years passed between the desegregation of public education and the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
In 1968, which two major civil rights figures were assassinated?
Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy
Who were the United States Presidents during the majority of the civil rights movement?
Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson
How was the Supreme Court order for school desegregation enforced in Little Rock, Arkansas?
with federal troops
Which event happened first, the Montgomery bus boycott or the Freedom Riders' challenge to segregated buses?
Founded in 1942 by Pacifists, __________ was dedicated to bringing about racial changes in America.
In the Voting Rights Act of 1965, President _____ promised a new law to protect voting rights of African Americans.
Explain why President Kennedy had difficulty completing his domestic programs during his Presidency?
Although Kennedy was full of proposals to improve the economy, assist the poor, and speed up the space program, he often hit roadblocks in Congress. For example, to help end the economic slump, in 1963 Kennedy proposed a large tax cut over three yeas. At first, the measure would reduce government income and create a budget deficit. Kennedy believed, however that the extra cash in taxpayers' wallets would stimulate the economy and eventually bring in added tax revenues. However, as often happened, the President's proposal became stuck in Congress.
How did the United States government investigate the assassination of President Kennedy?
On November 29, President Johnson appointed the President's Commission to investigate the assasination of President Kennedy. After months of investigation, the President's Commission determined that Oswald had acted alone in shooting the President. Neither Oswald, Jack Ruby, nor any other American or foreigner was involved in a conspiracy to commit the crime, the commision concluded.
Describe the makeup and important decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren.
The Kennedy-Johnson years featured many of the landmark decisions of the famous, and controversial, Warren Court. As it had in earlier civil rights cases, The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren overturned many old laws and rulings and established new legal precedents. One important social decision was made in an explosive 1962 case in which the Court ruled that religious prayer in public schools was unconstitutional according to the First Amendment principle of separation of church and state. Criminal procedure was changed forever by some of the decisions made by the Warren Court. The Warren Court also handed down a series of decisions on apportionment, or the distribution of the seats in a legislature among electoral districts.
How did the Johnson Administration continue the domestic and foreign policies of the Kennedy years?
Johnson was aware that the American people needed some action that would help heal the wound caused by the loss of their President. To that end, he used all the talents he had developed as Senate Majority Leader to push through Congress an extraordinary program of reforms on domestic issues, which included Kennedy's civil rights and tax cut bills. The Johnson Administration also continued some of Kennedy's foreign policies which focused on containing communism around the world.
What issues did Latinos face in the 1960s and 1970s?
Looking to the civil rights movement and the women's movement, other ethnic and racial groups began to make demands for their own equality during this era. People of Spanish descent searched for an identity in America as they also tried to hang onto their own cultural traditions, religion, and language. Many Latino farm workers were united behind leaders such as Cesar Chavez to fight for better working conditions and pay.
The American Indian movement focused on what issues?
In 1968, two Chippewa activists, Dennis Banks and George Mitchell, set out the goals of a new activist organization, the American Indian Movement. Following the example of militant black groups, AIM focused first on the special problems of Native Americans living in cities by setting up patrols and encouraging racial and cultural pride in young people. Eventually, AIM also fought fought for Native American legal rights, including autonomy, or self-government. It also sought control of natural resources on Native American lands, and the restoration of lands illegally taken from Indian nations.
Explain how Ralph Nader focused the nation's attention on consumer issues.
Ralph Nader was this era's most important and visible champion of consumer rights. In 1964, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, then Assistant Secretary of Labor, hired Nader as a consultant on the issue of automobile safety regulations. The government report Nader wrote deveopled into a book, "Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-in Dangers of the American Automobile." The book was a sensation. Nader later broadened his efforts and investigated the meatpacking business, helping to secure support for the Wholesome Meat Act of 1967. As ordinary Americans began to stand up for their rights, consumer protection offices began to respond to their many complaints.
Kennedy's proposal to improve the economy, assist the poor, and speed up the space program
How was Kennedy a "new type of candidate" in the 1960 election?
Kennedy was only 43 and a Roman Catholic
Why did President Johnson announce that he would not run for re-election in 1968?
ace riots and Vietnam War protests
The political party La Raza Unida was organized to
improve pay, housing, and job opportunities for Hispanic Americans.
A crisis occurred in Berlin because
the Soviets attempted to cut off Berlin from the western free world
The Supreme Court issued many important rulings in the early 1960s, including the ban on ______ in 1962.
Many people served their country as VISTA volunteers in America and ______ volunteers overseas.
The banned nuclear testing above ground to eliminate the radioactive fallout that nuclear testing produced.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
The leading consumer advocate in America was _______ , who encouraged American industries to make safer products.
The _____ aimed to control the pollution caused by industrial and automobile emissions.
Clean Air Act
What country made repeated attempts to take over the small country of Vietnam?
Vietnam had a history of nationalism that extended back nearly 2,000 years. The Vietnamese spent much of that time resisting attempts by neighboring China to swallow their small country.
Why did many Americans refer to American activities in Vietnam as "McNamara's War"?
One of the American officials who helped create the Kennedy administration's Vietnam policy was Robert NcNarama, President Kennedy's Secretary of Defense. A Republican with a strong business background, McNarama bcame one of Kennedy's closest advisors on Vietnam. Later, he helped shape the policies that drew the United States deeper into the war.
What was the difference between the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese?
North Vietnam was the heart of traditional Vietnamese society, the area where French influence had been the weakest. The North Vietnamese were passionately comitted to the unification of the nation.The Viet Cong was the military arm of the National Liberation Front, South Vietnamese Communists, who supported the goals of the North Vietnamese Communists in their attempt to gain military and political control over South Vietnam.
How did American leaders use the domino theory to support American actions in Vietnam?
The domino theory refers to the fear that if one Southeast Asian nation fell to the Communists, the others would also fall. American leaders reasoned that a Communist takeover in Vietnam, because of its geographic location, posed a threat to Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand. They used this as justification for American actions in Vietnam.
What powers did the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution give to the President of the United States?
After North Vietnamese torpedo boats had attacked United States destroyers in the international waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, the President asked Congress for and obtained a resolution giving him authority to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further agression." Congress passed this Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving the President nearly complete control over what the United States did in Vietnam, even without an official declaration of war from Congress.
What tactics did the enemy in Vietnam use that frustrated American soldiers?
When Americans first started arriving in Vietnam in large numbers, they encountered all the frustrations of guerilla warfare. American forces had superior arms and supplies, but the Viet Cong had some advantages of their own. For one thing, they were familiar with the swamps and jungles of Vietnam and often hid themseleves in elaborate underground tunnels. They worked in small groups to launch sneak attacks and practice sabatoge, and set various booby traps. In addition, they could find protection across the border in Cambodia and Laos. American soldiers found the war confusing and disturbing.
How did the U.S. military destroy the jungle and crops in Vietnam?
Pilots dropped an herbicide known as Agent Orange on the dense jungle landscapes. By killing the leaves and thick undergrowth, the herbicide exposed Viet Cong hiding places. Agent Orange also killed crops.
Why was the North Vietnamese-led Tet Offensive so effective?
The Tet Offensive included surprise attacks on major cities and towns and American military bases throughout South Vietnam. These attacks were uncommonly savage and brutal. The Tet Offensive was so effective because no one had anticipated this level of organization and readiness to attack, especially since it occured at the holiest time of the Buddhist calendar.
What role did college students play in the anti-war protest movement?
Students were among the first to protest the Vietnam War. In the first six months of 1968, more than 200 major demonstrations erupted at colleges and universities around the country. One of the most dramatic incidents took place in April of 1968 at Columbia University in New York City, when students took over the presidents office, resulting in the arresting of hundreds of students.
Why did the Republicans and the nation choose Richard M. Nixon in 1968?
During his campaign, Republican Richard M. Nixon backed law and order and boasted of a secret plan to end the war in Vietnam. With a well-run and well-financed campaign, Nixon quickly took the lead in public opinion polls. In an era of chaos and confusion, many Americans turned to the Republican party for stability.
a new political movement that called for radical solutions to problems of poverty and racism
What shocking event took place at in Ohio in 1970?
Four students were killed by National Guardsmen at Kent State University
What did the 26th Amendment do and in what year was it passed?
It lowered the voting age to 18 and was passed in 1971.
How was the passage of the 26th Amendment related to the Vietnam War?
Lawmakers believed that if young men could serve their country in war, they should be able to vote for the leaders who were sending them to fight.
What resulted from the Geneva Accords of 1954?
Vietnam was divided into two nations.
Ho Chi Minh became a significant leader.
Elections were to be held to unify the country.
The Communists launched the Tet Offensive hoping that
the South Vietnamese would revolt against their American backed-government
President John Kennedy did not want to get involved in a war in Asia because he
feared that China might enter the war as it had in Korea.
Nixon unleashed the so-called Christmas bombs on North Vietnam in 1972 in order to
force the North Vietnamese to sign the cease-fire agreement of October 1972.
All of the following were results of the war in Vietnam except
democratic elections were held in South Vietnam.
The massacre at My Lai was probably due to
Lt. Calley and his men being frustrated and suffering from battle shock
A violent group of the SDS known as the _______ deliberately targeted police in Chicago in 1969.
In the spring of 1975, ________ fell to the Communists as thousands tried to escape the city.
The executive branch of the United States government ordered an endless bombing campaign known as ________ to weaken the Communist will to fight.
Operation rolling thunder
The ________ centered on college campuses where bright, educated students became interested in American foreign policies.
free speech movement
In Communist-controlled Cambodia, Pol Pot's political party, known as _________ , brutally caused the deaths of over 1.5 million people.
Why were the Camp David Accords significant to the progress of establishing world peace?
The Camp David Accords was the first signed peace treaty with an Arab country. Under the peace treaty, Isreal would withdraw from the Sinai peninsula, which it had occupied since 1967. Egypt, in return, became the first Arab country to recognize Israel's existence as a nation. Although the Camp David Accords did not solve all the problems in the Middle East, it served as a framework for peace in the Middle East and was a significant step in the progress of establishing world peace.
How did the congressional investigation of the Watergate break-in and cover-up relate to the American concept of checks and balances?
The American concept of checks and balances is a system in which each of the branches of the federal government can check actions of the other branches. In 1973, a Senate Select Commitee on Presidential Campaign Activities began to investigate the Watergate break-in and cover-up. This was a great example of a branch of government checking the actions of another branch.
What was the political significance and consequence of President Nixon's "enemies list"?
The political significance of the "enemies list" was that it showed how Nixon abused his powers in office in attempts to protect himself at all costs from anything that might weaken his political position. The "enemies list" was a list of people considered unsympathetic to the administration that Nixon wanted harrassed in various ways. When this list was presented during Watergate hearings, it served as evidence for Nixon's wrongdoings.
How did détente in the Nixon Administration help to bring about a lessening of Cold War tensions?
Nixon and Kissinger's greatest accomplshment was in bringing about detente, or a relaxation in tensions, between the United States, China, and the Soviet Union. The administration undertook a series of moves designed to improve relationships between the United States and China including meeting with ambassadors, formally recognizing the nation, lifting restrictions on travel to China, engaging in sports with China, and ending thr 21 year embargo on trade with the People's Republic of China. These moves helped greatly to ease Cold War tensions.
Why did President Nixon resign his office in 1974?
Despite Nixon's victory in the election of 1972, the Watergate scandal refused to go away. By sizable tallies, the House Judiciary Commitee voted to impeach the President on charges of obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and refusal to obey a congressional order to turn over his tapes. On August 5 Nixon finally obeyed a supreme court ruling and released the tapes, which contained a disturbing 18 1/2 minutes during which the conversation had been mysteriously erased. Still, the tapes gave clear evidence of Nixon's involvement in the coverup. Three days later, knowing that he would be removed from office, Nixon painfuly announced he would would leave the office of President the next day.
How did President Nixon's group of advisors shield him from outside scrutiny?
Nixon's staff tried to protect him at all costs from anything that would weaken his political position. Fiercly loyal aides carried out schemes to ensure that the president would win, some of them committing crimes in the process. Special counsel Charles W. Colson helped develop a list of people that were seen as unsympathetic to the administration, and aides thought of ways to harrass these people.
Discuss President Nixon's policy of "New Federalism" as he hoped to limit the growth of the federal government.
Nixon called for a new partnership between the federal government and the state governments known as the New Federalism. Under this policy, states would assume greater responsibility for the well-being of their own citizens. Congress passed a series of "revenue-sharing" bills that granted federal funds to state and local governments. This in effect limited the growth of the federal government.
Why was President Nixon's visit to China such a monumental achievement?
Before Nixon's Presidency, the United States did not even formally recognize the new Chinese government. In effect, the United States officially pretended that it did not exist. Nixon took many steps to improve the relations between China and the United States. He traveled to China in February 1972 to meet with Chinese leaders and tour Chinese sights. This visit was such a momumental achievement because it established the basis for diplomatic ties between the United States and China.
Outline the United States arsenal of nuclear missiles available for launch in the late 1960s and 1970s.
In the late 1960's, The US had nuclear missiles that could be launched from land, sea and air, also known as the Nuclear Triad. These missles were known as ICBM's (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles), SLBM's (Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles) and Bombers. While the number of delivery vehicles stayed fairly steady in the 1970's, the number of warheads increased dramatically with the development of missiles that could carry multiple warheads such as the Minuteman III ICBM (3 warheads) and the Poseidon SLMB (10 warheads).
What economic and political issues helped Jimmy Carter to defeat the incumbent President Ford in the 1976 election?
The economic issue that led to the victory of Jimmy Carter in the 1976 election was the inability of the Ford Administration to deal with hyperinflation and high unemployment. President Carter's failure to bring inflation under control cost him the support of the American public. Politically, President Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon bothered many Americans, who in turn gave their support to Jimmy Carter. American's liked Carter's down-home approach and lack of connections to Washington.
Why did the United States boycott the 1980 Olympics?
The U.S. opposed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
What action did the OPEC nations take toward the U.S. in 1973?
They imposed an embargo on oil shipments to the U.S
What important national celebration took place in 1976?
the Bicentennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence
Which countries belonged to the OPEC alliance?
Venezuela, Ecuador, Algeria, Nigeria, Gabon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Indonesia.,
In May of 1973, public hearings into the Watergate matter were televised to the public by the
The purpose of the Presidential visit to China was
A. to end the American policy of ignoring China.
B. to prepare the American public for formal recognition of China
to take advantage of the Soviet-China split.
Which of the following most weakened President Carter's Presidency?
. the hostage crisis, inflation, and the energy crisis
Presidential Candidate Jimmy Carter was considered a Washington outsider with a
"down home" approach.
With the War Powers Act of 1973, Congress
limited the President's ability to involve the U.S. in foreign conflicts
At the President's retreat in Maryland, known as _______ , a framework for peace in the Middle East was signed in 1978.
President Carter felt that it was important to pardon Vietnam ______ to heal the nation's wounds.
Henry Kissinger, the President's Secretary of State, used practical politics known as ________ to work with foreign nations.
Because federal spending is difficult to control, President Nixon hoped to stimulate the economy with ________ , a policy unpopular among Republicans.
President Nixon agreed to appoint a ________ to investigate government wrongdoings in an attempt to show his honesty to the American people.
Though President Ford had many years of experience in Congress, he lacked experience in important
U.S. foreign affairs
Explain why many Republicans became unhappy with policies under Presidents Eisenhower and Nixon.
Most republicans wanted a smaller, more limited federal government. President Eisenhower never attempted to dismantle the federal bureaucracy, and it even expanded during his presidency. Under President Nixon, too, the federal government continued to grow. For these reasons, many Republicans were unhappy under Presidents Eisenhower and Nixon.
Explain President Reagan's plan called "New Federalism," and tell why Reagan felt these programs were necessary.
Reagan called his plan "New Federalism" because it called for a new relationship between the federal government and state and local governments. Under this plan, the federal government would no longer tell states exactly how federal aid had to be used. Rather, it would let stats create and pay for progams they saw fit. Reagan felt these programs were necessary because he believed the federal government had become too intrusive in peoples lives and that its power needed to be limited.
What three campaign promises did Ronald Reagan make in the 1980 Presidential election?
During the 1980s campaign, Ronald Reagan stressed three broad policies that he would pursue if elected. He promised to slash taxes, eliminate unnecessary government programs, and bolster the defense capability of the United States. His goals were to reshape the federal government and restore the country's strength and prosperity.
In what ways did the Reagan Administration attempt to contain Communism in Latin American countries?
Reagan feared that Communist forces in Latin American countries would gain power and threaten American interests in the Western Hemisphere. In El salvador, the United States supported a repressive military regime in its efforts to resist guerrillas, some of whom were Marxists, and increased military aid to El Salvador to the level of about $1 million a day. In Nicaragua, the United States helped guerrillas who were fighting to overthrow that nations leftist government. Reagan claimed a victory over communism on the tiny Carribean island of Grenada after the Unites States forces invaded and overthrew the communist government.
Give examples of renewed patriotism among Americans in the 1980s.
The 1980s offered several occasions to celebrate patriotic renewal. The 1984 Olympic Games were held in Los Angeles, the first time the Summer Games had come to the United States in half a century. This gave Americans a huge opportunity to show their patriotism in support of their athletes. Two years later, the nation celebrated the centennial of the Statue of Liberty in the New York harbor. The following year, the United States celebrated the 200th anniversary of the constitution, renewing the public's appreciation of such enduring ideas as balanced government and separation of powers.
How did many African Americans gain greater political power in the 1980s?
The federal government's commitment to extending voting rights had given the vote to millions of African Americans who had been denied it for decades. These new voters helped elect an increasing number of African American candidates to local, state, and national offices. Altogether, the number of African American elected officials rose from 4,890 in 1890 to 7,335 ten years later.
How did the American manufacturing economy change in the 1980s?
Several manufacturing industries with deep roots in the United States lost ground in the 1980s to foreign competition. The recession of 1981-1982 accelerated job losses and factory closings, and many people who lost high-paying manufacturing jobs during the recession were unable to find similar work when the economy picked up. The number of workers in the metal and textile industries fell sharply during the 1980s. These losses were part of a historic shift in the United States economy away from manufacturing.
What were the results of the 1992 Presidential election and what goals did the new President set for his Administration?
On election day, Clinton received 43 percent of the votes, while Bush polled nearly 38 percent. Perot's strong showing of about 19 percent meant that Clinton became President with less than a majority of the vote. Clinton was an explicit advocate of the need for government programs to assist the needy, but he hoped to bring about a "New Democratic" program that would balance the need to contain the size of the government while still maintaining programs that would benefit most Americans. In dealing with the economy, Clinton tried to stay in the middle ground and sought the approval of Congress.
For what reasons did the United States launch the war on terrorism?
On September 11, 2001, Americans reacted with horror when terrorists struck at targets in New York City and Washington, D.C. Using hijacked commercial airplanes as their weapons, the terrorists crashed into both towers of New York's World Trade Center and plowed into part of the Pentagon. A fourth plane crashed in a field near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In response to the greatest attack on American soil that the country has every known, the United States launched a war on terrorism.
How do you think the voting problems in the 2000 Presidential election affect future national elections?
On the election night of the 2000 Presidential election, the votes in several states were too close to call; neither candidate had captured the 270 electoral votes needed to win the presidency. By state law a recount of the votes was required, due to close results. Democrats and Republicans argued bitterly over how the recount should proceed. Charges were made on both sides that recounts were not fair or accurate, and after 36 days of course battles, the presidency was given to Bush. This affected future national elections by making the voting process more uniform and secure.
Jerry Falwell and other Christian conservatives' attempts to reach Americans with the New Right message
When did Americans learn about a scheme to sell arms to support anti-Communist rebels in Nicaragua?
In 1981, what actions did President Reagan take to improve the nation's economy?
cuts income tax rates
Under what conditions was George W. Bush declared victorious in the 2000 presidential election?
The Supreme Court ruling ends recounts in Florida, leading to Bush's victory.
Name three important Cold War events of the 1980s which took place in Communist-controlled countries.
Tiananmen Square, China, 1989; Chernobyl disaster, 1986; fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989,
October 1998 marked only the ______________ time that the House of Representatives has impeached the President of the United States.
After his defeat in the Persian Gulf War, Saddam Hussein refused to cooperate with
U.N. weapons inspectors
Charges of wrongdoing and scandal in the Clinton Administration became known as the
Targets in New York and Washington were attacked on September 11, 2001 by
. terrorists led by Osama bin Laden.
During the Reagan years, what happened to the overall budget deficit?
It increased by about $210 billion.
Throughout Eastern Europe, anti-Communist revolts broke out, including those behind the so called
. Iron Curtain
The first woman Supreme Court Justice was appointed by President Reagan in 1981. She was conservative Republican
Sandra Day O'Connor.
Opponents of the expansion of government programs criticized programs of the 1980s as interfering with
Reagan dubbed his economic program Reagonomics, which relied on _______ to make it work.
In an effort to protect American territory against nuclear attack, Reagan announced the ______ in 1983, popularly known as Star Wars.
Strategic Defense Initiative
In Nicaragua, the ruling Marxist style government leaders known as Sandinistas were undermined by the CIA trained ______ or counter revolutionaries.
is a movement of greater focus on people of non-European backgrounds in American society.
Supporters of the idea that business performs best when government leaves it alone were
Coolidge and Harding.
In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the nation's wealth was controlled by
a small number of rich people.
The idea that government is responsible for citizens' economic security is the basis of
the welfare state.
In the 1960s, the Warren Commission's most controversial decisions involved
the rights of people accused of crimes.
The belief that if South Vietnam became Communist, all of Southeast Asia would become Communist was called
the domino theory.
The United States and Soviet Union agreed to lift nuclear weapon production as a result of the
The hostage crisis, the energy crisis, and inflation in the late 1970s weakened
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
allowed the United States to step up its military involvement in Southeast Asia
Discuss the effects of environmental issues such as global warming, acid rain, and nuclear waste storage on many of the countries of the world.
Environmental issues are at the forefront of concern for many of the world's people. Industrialization and modernization has led to many pollution issues. Acid rain is a byproduct of exhaust from factory smoke stacks and internal combustion engines used in cars, planes, railroads, and other machines. The pollutants in the air have also led to a warming of the Earth's atmosphere and a depletion of the ozone layer. We are just beginning to understand how this will affect life on Earth. The storage of nuclear waste is also a great problem because of leaks and contamination of soils, water, and plant life. Measures have been taken to control some of these pollutants but not before much damage had already been done.
Explain the causes of the Great Depression, its effects on the American people, and how the U.S. government tried to end the Depression.
The Great Depression was a time of terrible economic hardship throughout the world. In the United States, over-speculation in the stock market led to a stock market crash in 1929. This crash led to further devaluing of the dollar and a run on the banks as people tried to pull out their savings. The banks did not have the money demanded and had to close their doors on the public. Millions of people lost their life savings. As businesses began to close, people lost their jobs and could not find other work. They lost their homes, cars, and farms. Homelessness and poverty were widespread. Almost everyone in America was affected. The government initiated many programs to return the nation to normalcy and created new legislation to prevent further disasters from happening in the future.
How did the United States and its allies meet the challenges of the war in Europe and in the Pacific? Discuss the outcome of the war and how peace treaties were negotiate
The United States and its allies fought with Germany and Italy in Europe. The United States also fought with the Japanese in the Pacific. Troops, supplies, and other resources were needed in both areas. The American people worked at home to save money and materials, and to produce supplies needed for the war effort. Military strategists worked together to plan attacks on the enemy, which eventually led to the defeat of the Axis Powers in 1945. Treaties were negotiated with both the Germans and the Japanese. Allied commanders were left in both areas to enforce the disarmament and facilitate the return to normalcy.
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