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Psychology: Ch. 10
Terms in this set (32)
also called instrumental conditioning, is a kind of learning in which an animal or human performs some behavior, and the following consequence (reward or punishment) increases or decreases the chance that an animal or human will again perform that same behavior.
Law of effect
states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened
a response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measured
a small enclosure that is automated to record an animal's bar presses and deliver food pellets as a consequence
a procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or examine the desired behavior
a behavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the deliver of a reinforcer
A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the chance that the behavior will occur again
A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again
a behavioral disorder, often seen in individuals with intellectual impairment, that involves eating inedible objects or unhealthy substances. This can result in serious physical problems, including lead poisoning, intestinal blockage, and parasites.
the presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will occur again
An aversive (unpleasant) stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
a stimulus that increases the likelihood that the response preceding it will occur again
a stimulus, such as food, water, or sex, that is innately satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasureable
Any stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience; secondary reinforcers are learned, such as being paired with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers.
refers to presenting an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a response. The aversive stimulus decreases the chances that the response will recur.
Refers to a child refusing to follow directions, carry out a request, or obey a command given by a parent or caregiver.
removes reinforcing stimuli after an undesirable response. This removal decreases the chances that the undesired response will recur.
Refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus (such as a child's allowance) after a response. This removal decreases the chances that the response will recur.
means that every occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcer
Refers to a situation in which responding is reinforced only some of the time
means that a reinforcer occurs after a fixed number of responses are made by the participant
means that a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of correct responses has occurred
means that a reinforcer occurs following the first correct response after an average amount of time has passed
which involves mental processes such as attention and memory, says that learning can occur through observation or imitation and such learning may not involve any external rewards or require a person to perform any observable behaviors
a mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features
learning that is not demonstrated in behavior until its application becomes useful
Social cognitive learning
results from watching, imitating, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward
Critical or sensitive period
the relatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur
preparedness or prepared learning
the innate or biological tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others, as well as to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others
a treatment or therapy that changes or modifies problems or undesirable behaviors by using principles of learning based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learning
a condition marked by poor development in social relationships, such as not wanting to be touched, not making eye contact, and hiding to avoid people
the systematic reinforcement of desired behaviors and the withholding of reinforcement or punishment of undesired behaviors
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