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Medes and Persians
1. Migrated from Asia to Iran
2. Lived under Babylonians and Assyrians
3. Lived in clans, no formal institutions
4. Considerable military power
5. Began conquering land when Assyrians and Babylonian rule weakened
1. An Achamenid
2. Reigned 558-530 BC
3. 558 BC - king of Persian tribes
4. 553 BC - overthrew Median overlord
5. 548 BC - ruled all of Iran
6. 546 BC - conquered Lydia
7. 539 BC - ruled Babylonia
8. Ruled from India to Egypt
9. 530 BC - died in battle
1. Administrative capital of the Achaemenid empire
2. Built by Darius
3. Monument to Achaemenid dynasty
Each had a contingent of military officers and tax collectors who served as checks on their power
Eyes and ears of the king
New category of officials who were agents who traveled throughout the empire with military forces and conducted surprised audits and collected intelligence reports
Ruler who did not impose government laws om subjects, but took local laws and codified them to agree with government laws and regulations
Persian Royal Road
1600 mile road that ran through the Persian empire and had a courier service running on it
Ruler who built roads to improve communication between areas in the empire and to facilitate trade
1. Ruled 521-486 BC
2. Built capital of Persepolis as a city center and monument to Achaemenid dynasty
3. Established system of satrapies and satraps
4. Established system of imperial spies
5. Regularized tax levies
6. Standardized laws and currency
7. Built Persian Royal Road and improved existing roads
8. Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
9. Started construction of qanats
Ruler who, in order to put down Greek rebellion, attempted to conquer wealthy major Greek cities, but failed
Greek who invaded Persia with a smaller army than Persia and fewer supplies and less sophisticated equipment and won and ended Persian Wars
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