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COMS 2050 final exam
Terms in this set (73)
Problem recognition and framing (task)
A group cannot make a decision if its members cannot identify the decision that needs to be made or if they frame a decision inaccurately or inappropriately.
Inference drawing (task)
As group members solve problems or make decisions, they will be required to use analysis and reasoning and then communicate that analysis and reasoning as judgements or claims that go beyond the available information.
Idea generation (task)
To make effective decisions, groups must have adequate alternatives from which to select.
is a skill that can counteract the cognitive, affiliative, and egocentric constraints that can arise in group interaction.
or difficulties and inadequacies in processing information
based on the relationship among members of the group.
occur when one group member has a high need for control over the group or its activities or has a personal hidden agenda.
Climate Building (relational)
A positive or supportive climate develops when group members communicate with equality, spontaneity, and empathy, and avoid evaluation, control, and certainty.
Conflict management (relational)
To help manage conflict, group members can steer the conversation from personal issues back to task issues and to helping those who are experiencing conflict find common ground.
Members with this skill help the group by communicating what needs to be first, second, and so on, and by suggesting a decision making procedure to use.
Process enactment (procedural)
or helping the group through the decision making process.
Why groups are better at making decisions (1)
it is unlikely that any individual will possess or have access to all the knowledge and resources necessary to make a good decision.
Why groups are better at making decisions (2)
groups generally bring a greater diversity of perspectives to the situation, so it is more difficult to become locked onto an idea that lacks merit.
Why groups are better at making decisions (3)
when more people are involved in decision making, the group has the opportunity to check out ideas before one is selected and implemented.
Five functions that groups need to accomplish to make decisions effectively:
1) throughly discuss the problem, 2) examine the criteria of an acceptable solution before discussing specific solutions, 3)propose a set of realistic alternative solutions, 4)asses the positive aspects of each proposed solution, 5) assess the negative aspects of each proposed solution.
also known as reflective thinking.
designed to improve productivity and creativity.
Nominal group technique
individual group members generate ideas on their own before interacting as a group to discuss ideas.
each group member agrees with the decision.
simply the process of casting written or verbal ballots in support of or against a specific proposal.
assigning a numerical value to each decision alternative
exists anytime the information the group is using is prejudiced toward a particular alternative, or prejudiced in such a way as to favor some group members over others.
is a faulty decision making that results from a lack of critical thinking.
constructively criticizes ideas brought before the group.
most frequently used group communication skill.
Assess the skills
assess the skills you are contributing. Recall decision making skills described earlier on.
(Problem, Evaluation, and Review Technique), which helps group members order the activities that must be completed to implement a decision.
Outcomes that constitute a high-quality decision
1) Satisfied the criteria for acceptable solutions, as identified by group members 2) produced high rewards and low costs, and 3) was acceptable to the group or others who implemented the decision.
means that at least two interdependent parties (individuals or groups ) capable of invoking sanctions opposed each other.
is rooted in issues or ideas.
polarizes groups, with one side winning and the other side losing.
occurs when the disagreement actually helps move the group along with its task or activities.
group members disagree about information or data or the analysis of that information.
or conflicts about how the work gets done.
occurs when one party has expectations about another party's behavior.
is rooted in interpersonal relationships, emotions, or personalities.
is the power associated with a position or role in the group.
is power given by you to another group member based on your desire to build a relationship with him or her.
is power based on what a group member knows or can do.
power based on what information a group member possess
rewards can be relationally oriented, such as attention, friendship, or favors.
results from the expectation that you can or will be punished by another group member.
helps a group achieve a win-win outcome an outcome which everyone can agree.
emphasizes your own triumph at the other person's expense.
in which you give everything and take very little from the conflict.
changing the topic or shifting the focus to other issues.
is an intermediate strategy between cooperativeness and assertiveness.
help the group establish operating procedures and plan its work.
As individuals work together to accomplish the group task or activity, it is natural that miscommunication and conflicts will surface, challenging interpersonal relationships among group members.
Leaders must demonstrate technical competence relative to the technical demands of the group's activity.
Telling leadership style
(high task, low relationship) is best for group members who are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for group tasks.
Selling leadership style
(high task, high relationship) is best for group members who are willing but unable to take responsibility for group tasks.
Participating leadership style
(high relationship, low task) is effective with members who are able but unwilling to take responsibility for group tasks.
Delegating leadership style
(low relationship, low task) is most effective with group members who are both willing and able to take responsibility for group tasks.
is an exceptionally expressive person who communicates in such a way as to persuade, influence, and mobilize others.
whereby a leader who is not appointed or elected emerges as a result of the group's interaction.
Enhancing leadership ability (1)
Are you knowledgable about leadership issues? Do you understand a variety of leadership styles, and can you explain why different types of leadership may be needed?
Enhancing leadership ability (2)
Can you perform a variety of leadership behaviors and functions?
Enhancing leadership ability (3)
What kind of impression do you make as a leader?
lists when the group needs to consider in detail and what the order of consideration will be.
groups need to a record, or minutes of what they did at each meeting. Minutes should report on who attended the meeting, what was discussed, what was decided, who agreed to take on what responsibilities, and what the group plans to do next.
or mission statement describes behaviors that are appropriate in this particular group.
Code of conduct
describes behaviors that are appropriate in this particular group.
Importance of group charter & code of conduct:
members are more likely to share perceptions about what constitutes effective group membership. Developing these documents also helps a group crystallize its identity and culture.
6 general obstacles to effective group meetings
1) long meetings, 2) unequal member involvement and commitment, 3) formation of cliques 4) different levels of communication skill 5) different communicator styles 6) personal conflicts
information about the quantity or quality of a group's work
serves as an error detection device to help a group identify and begin to solve its interaction problems.
feedback that focuses on specific group members
feedback that provides info about the group climate
feedback about the group's interactions and members' relationships, cooperation, communication, and its coordination.
feedback that merely identifies or describes how a group member communicates.
Feedback that goes beyond mere description that provides an evaluation or assessment of the person who communicates.
feedback that provides group members with advice about how they should act or communicate.
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