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Research Methods of Criminal Justice Quiz's 5,6,7
Terms in this set (66)
Sometimes it is necessary to make the same measurement more than once, which is known as?
An empirical measure that adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as?
Professor Smith is studying attitudes toward gun control and plans to assess support for firearms registration by determining whether or not her research subjects say they would travel to countries where the possession of unlicensed guns is legal. Her critics argue that this measure lacks what?
Criterion related validity
A comparison of measures to some external criterion.
Age of an offender is an example of which level of measurement?
When a supervisor for a survey contacts a subset of the respondents to verify certain information, it is?
Nominal Level of Measurement
Measuring religious affiliation by asking respondents to indicate if they are Catholic, Jewish, Protestant or Muslim would be using the?
Conceptualization, conceptual definition, operational definition and Real world measurement.
The following sequence illustrates the progression of measurement steps.
Multiple Measures Test of Validity
Does not represent one of the techniques used to assess the reliability of a measure. Split half, inter-rater, and test-retest do.
The words or symbols in language used to illustrate subjective thoughts or mental images about things we may encounter in daily life are known as?
Ratio there is an absolute meaning of zero
Difference between Interval and ratio level variables
What type of variable allows you to arrange attributes from greater than to less than, but does not allow you to tell how much greater or how much less than one attribute is from another?
Validity that is related to the logical relationships between variables is known as?
Every variable should have two important qualities; their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive.
Ordinal measures not Nominal Measures are variables whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered.
Reliability is threatened every time there is a single observer as the source of data.
A lower level measure cannot be converted to a higher level one.
Validity refers to whether you are measuring what you think you are measuring.
The process of regarding real things that are not is called?
The conceptualization and operationalization process can be seen as the specification of variables and what composing them?
is a matter of whether a particular measurement technique, applied repeatedly to the same object, will yield the same result each time.
The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within the concept.
Researchers must decide on offenses, units and purposes before specifying measures of crime.
The UCR accounts for all types of crime, even those crimes that are not observed
Reports each crime incident rather than the total number of certain crimes and only takes account of the hierarchy rule.
One important step in selecting a measure of crime is deciding what crimes will be included.
Methods of reporting crime are never updated and have been continually used since their inception.
Part II offenses of the UCR are counted when:
Crimes resulting in an arrest and criminal charge.
In an incident containing multiple crimes, the most serious one is counted in the UCR. This practice is known as?
Difference between UCR and NIBRS
Reporting each crime incident rather than reporting the total number of certain crimes for each law enforcement agency.
An instrument that asks people whether or not they have been the victim of a crime.
NCVS is based on a nationally representative sample of?
What is not accounted for in the NCVS?
Crimes that have commercial establishments as victims.
When respondents may not accurately recall when an incident occurred.
UCR and NCVS
Two series of crime measures seek to assess the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation.
Self Report Surveys
The most effective method for accounting for certain crimes such as delinquency and victimless crime.
Monitoring the Future
core sample of measuring high school seniors.
Police measurement of crime is imperfect because?
People do not always report crimes to police, police do not always record crimes that become known to them, police do not always record crimes they observe.
To provide ongoing assessment of the prevalence of drug use among persons arrested for criminal offenses.
ADAM combined what?
Urinalysis and self-report measures of drug use.
Surveys are useful for learning about?
Crimes not reported to police.
Self Report Survey could determine?
The amount of cocaine use in an inner city area of Chicago.
Self Report Survey is best for?
Measuring Crimes that do not have easily identifiable victims.
Crime data that is compile by the FBI.
Delinquency, Victim-less crime and rarely observed crime may be measured by?
Self Report Surveys
affords a comparatively long term series that monitors the most serious medical consequences of drug use.
Self Report Surveys
Are best at measuring crimes that do not have readily identifiable victims and those that are less observed by police.
In the classical experiment subjects are measure on the independent variable before the experiment begins and again after the DEPENDENT variable has been manipulated by the researcher.
False Independent variable.
The threat of statistical regression is a concern any time the researcher begins with subjects who exhibit extreme values on the dependent variable.
True- because over time, they become more average.
Construct Validity is concerned with the ability to generalize from the results of the experimental group to the control group.
False- it is concerned with measuring underlined constructs.
In case-oriented research a great number of cases are examined in order to understand a small number of variables.
While the interrupted time series can be used in cause-and-effect studies, it is really useless in applied studies.
In regards to Experiments this is least accurate.
Experiments can not be used in the study of criminal justice policy because they require a hypothesis to test.
In regards to Independent and dependent variables which is least accurate?
The independent variable and dependent variables can never be operationally defined after a wide variety of observations occur.
Decrease in Experimental Mortality
Shortening the time between pretest and post-test or perhaps even offering cash payments to participants in an experiment are techniques that can-
When in an experiment subjects are given a pretest in an effort to assess their attitudes about a new federal sentencing law that congress is debating. After the last lecture they are given a post-test to measure any attitude changes. This is a threat to-
An example of selection bias.
Diffusion of Treatments
Sometimes it is not possible to separate subjects from experimental and control groups and the result is that they may discuss the research. What is the threat this situation possess?
taking two exams for a better score with someone and receiving a lower score would demonstrate?
Goal of Classical Experiment
have control over the independent variable.
Choosing impact of child abuse and testing adults whose names appeared on police records and a group who were not victims of abuse is what type of technique?
What can help rule out the threats to internal validity in an experimental design?
Shortening the time between pretest and post test.
Case Oriented research
A questionnaire is sent to 1,000 police departments in Florida and gathers information on the number of sick days officers use after being involved in a shooting incident, this is an example of what type of research?
To guard against most threats to internal validity in the classical experiment the researcher should use?
Non-Equivalent-groups and time-series designs are two general types of quasi-experiments.
The following are types central feature of classical experiments: Variables, time order and groups. What is not?
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