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chapter 18 Cold War review 2
Terms in this set (41)
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
"Big Three." The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
country that is dominated by a more powerful nation
(military) the act of containing something or someone, or a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Airlift in 1948. Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.
National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 years
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
, This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of mainland China in the South China Sea, a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Location of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. , where united nations forces stopped North Korean troops
General Douglas MacArthur
commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan, He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
a war between North and South Korea
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
The Guarantee loyalty of federal employees,
House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC)
committee formed in the House of Representatives in the 1930s to investigate radical groups in the United States; it later came to focus on the threat of communism in the United States during World War II and the Cold War
ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood. They were jailed.
a list of 500 actors, writers; producers; and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood flims because of alleged Communist connections
The Mccarran Act
Required all communist organizations to register with the Government and report their activities., allowed the arrest of Communists in case of a national emergency.
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy (he was accussed of giving secret documents to Soviets) and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee; accusing people of disloyalty and communism
Army McCarthy Hearings
a series of hearings where Senator McCarthy accused people in the US military of being communists. These trials were one of the first televised trials in America, and helped show America Senator McCarthey's irresponsibility and meanness.
hydrogen bomb - invented in 1950's, MORE powerful than atomic bomb, example of Cold War arms race
Dwight D Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
Eisenhower's policy; it advocated the full use of American nuclear weapons to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe
John Foster Dullies
us. Secretary of State under Eisenhower
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety) rather than giving in
secret missions undertaken by the CIA during the Cold War, (secret activities undertaken by a state outside its borders through clandestine means to achieve specific political or military goals with respect to another state)
Central Intellegence Agency
CIA, concerned with national security of US taking place in other countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Jan 1957, warning to the Soviets that the US would defend the Middle East against an attack by any communist country
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
a Russian artificial satellite. , The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Francis Gary Powers
a U-2 pilot who's plane was shot down by a Soviet pilot. Sentenced to ten years in prison
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
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