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51 terms

Street Law- Crime in America

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substance abuse
the harmful overuse of chemicals, such as drugs and alcohol
drunk driving
the operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated a drunk person with a blood alcohol of .80 or above
implied consent
an unwritten agreement to submit forms of interrogation or searches in exchange for certain privileges, such as driving or flying
recidivist
a repeat criminal offender, convicted of a crime after having been previously convicted
restitution
the act of restoring something to its owner; the act of making good for loss or damage; repaying or refunding illegally obtained money or property
state of mind
what you are thinking; most crimes require that the actor have a guilty state of mind, meaning that he or she purposefully commits the prohibited act
motive
the reason a person commits a crime
strict liability
the legal responsibility for damage or injury even if you are not negligent
elements
the conditions that make an act unlawful
felony
a serious criminal offense punishable by a prison sentence of more than one year
misdemeanor
a criminal offense, less serious than a felony, punishable by a prison sentence of one year or less
principal
the person who commits the crime
accomplice
a person who voluntarily helps another person commit a crime; who is present or directly helps commit the crime
accessory before the fact
one who encourages, helps, orders, or helps plan a crime
accessory after the fact
knows a crime has been committed and helps conceal the crime or the criminal
crime of ommission
failing to perfrom an act required by criminal law
solicitation
the act or requsting or strongly urging someone to doe something. If the request is to do something illegal, solicitation is considered a crime
attempt
an effort to commit a crime that goes beyond mere preparation but does not result in the commission of the crime
conspiracy
an agreement between two or more person to commit a crime along with substantial act toward committing the crime
overt
open:clear--at least attempting to commit a crime
homicide
the killing of another person. Homicide can be criminal, noncriminal, or negligent.
malice
ill will; deliberate intent to harm someone
suicide
the deliberate taking of one's own life
assault
an intentional threat, show of force, or movement that causes a reasonable fear of, or an actual physical contact with, another person.
battery
any intentional, unlawful physical contact inflicted on one person by another without consent. In some states it is combined with assault.
stalking
the act of following or harassing another person, causing fear of death or injury
sexual assault
unwelcome sexual contact against another individual committed through the use of force, threat, or intimidation or enabled because the victim is incapacitated due to drugs, alcohol, or mental disability
rape
unlawful sexual intercourse, It is committed when one party forces another party to have sexual intercourse. It implies lack of consent
statutory rape
the act of unlawful sexual intercourse by an adult with someone under the age of consent, even if the minor is willing and vluntary participant in the sexual act
date rape
sexual assault by someone known to the victim, such as a date or neighbor
arson
the deliberate and malicious burning of another person's property
vandalism
the deliberate destruction or defacement of another person's property; also known as malicious mischief
larceny
the unlawful taking of another's property with the intest to steal it. Grand larceny is theft of something over $100
shoplifting
a form of larceny in which a person takes items from a store without paying or intending to pay
concealment
the crime of attempted shoplifting that is recognized by some states
embezzlement
the taking of money or property by a person to whom it has ben entrusted; for example, a bank teller or a company accountant
robbery
the unlawful taking of property from a person's immediate possession by force or intimidation
extortion
taking property illegally through threats of harm often called blackmail
burglary
breaking and entering a building with the intention of committing a crime
forgery
the act of making a fake document or altering a real one with the intent to commit fraud
receiving stolen property
receiving or buying property that is known or reasonably believed to be stolen
unauthorized use of a vehicle
unlawful taking of a car by someone who intends ony to use it temporarily
carjacking
a crime in which perpetrator uses force or intimidation to steal a car from a driver
hackers
a person who illegally accesses government or corporate computer systems
alibi
an excuse or plea that a person was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed
infancy
the legal defense of a person considered not yet legally responsible for his or her actions
intoxication
a state of drunkenness or similar condition created by the use of drugs or alcohol
insanity defense
defense raised by a criminal defendant stating taht because of mental disease or defect the defendant should not be held responsible for the crime committed
entrapment
an act by law enforcement officials to persuade a person to commit a crime that hte peron would not otherwise have committed.
duress
unlawful pressure on a person to do something that he or she would not otherwise do
necessity
defense to a criminal charge that shows a just or lawful reason for the defendant's conduct