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BIO final exam review

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An r-selected species would be expected to exhibit survivorship curve ___ and ____offspring.
type III, many small
A species of fish is found to require a certain water temperature, a particular oxygen content of the water, a particular depth, a rocky substrate on the bottom, and a variety of nutrients in the form of microscopic plants and animals to thrive. These requirements describe its
niche
Which of the following scenarios would best facilitate adaptive radiation?
- A population of birds native to an island archipelago is forced to relocate to the mainland by a storm.
- A population of birds becomes stranded on an island archipelago.
-A population of cheetahs goes through an event in which all genetic diversity in the population is wiped out.
-Darker-coloured moths have a selective advantage over lighter-coloured moths due to industrial soot on trees.
A population of birds becomes stranded on an island archipelago.
A metapopulation is
A group of subpopulations among which some individuals move occasionally
Energy flow in ecosystems is typically measured by looking at
biomass
a population pyramid
reflects the number of individuals in various age groups in a population.
Niche differentiation results in
a move from the fundamental niche to the realized niche for both species.
Character displacement arises
through competition and natural selection, favouring divergence in resource use.
It is speculated that H. floresiensis and H. sapiens may have lived on the island of Flores (in Indonesia) concurrently. Suppose researchers obtained mitochondrial DNA samples from the H. floresiensisremains, amplified a 1000-base-pair sequence via PCR, and compared it to that of several currently living H. sapiens native to Indonesia, North Africa, and North America. Also suppose H. floresiensis were found to differ from the
average Indonesian H. sapiens in 28 base pairs, from the average North African H. sapiens in 51 base pairs, and from the average North American H. sapiens in 53 base pairs, while two randomly selected H. sapiens differed from each other in an average of 21 base pairs. What would you conclude from these data?
H. floresiensis and H. sapiens probably lived on Flores concurrently, and interbred to some degree.
A gene family includes
two or more homologous genes found within a single species.
Which of the following can have a similar effect on population sizes as predators; that is, keeping populations below carrying capacity and limiting competitive exclusion? (obligate mutualists, intraspecific competitors, parasites, interspecific competitors)
parasites
Exponential growth can continue indefinitely only if
None of the above is correct; exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely.
Which of the following best describes niche differentiation?
Slight variations in niche allow similar species to coexist.
A group of field biologists goes out to mark beetles living in an area around a local pond in order to estimate population size. They capture 500 beetles on the first day. They return the following day and catch a total of 400 individuals, 200 of which are marked. What is the estimated population size for the beetles?
1,000
Which of the following is not an example of a mutualism?
-rancher ants that protect aphids in exchange for sugar-rich honeydew
-bacteria fixing nitrogen in plants
-birds eating insects jumping out of the path of army ants
-fungi residing in plant roots, such as endomycorrhizae
birds eating insects jumping out of the path of army ants
In conservation biology, what does the term "corridor" refer to?
Sections of habitat that organisms use to travel between two or more isolated patches of habitat.
In biology, a coevolutionary arms race occurs when
a pair of species influence each others' evolution
Dr. David Reznick has studied life history evolution in guppies that live in streams in Trinidad. Guppies are found in two different types of habitat: sites where predation is high, and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteristics would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a high-predation site? (a female-biased sex ratio, increased egg number, bright colours and courtship displays, increased egg size)
increased egg number
Hominins are defined as:
members of species in the lineage leading to humans.
this results from a mark-recapture study done on mice would reflect a larger population size?
When taking the second sample, 200 individuals are caught and 20 are marked from the first sample.
In 1987, 18 black-footed ferrets, the last known individuals of this species, were captured and brought into a captive breeding program in Wyoming. In 1989, there were 120 animals, which represents
N total pop size
Which of the following describes the reproductive strategy of Pacific salmon, which die shortly after spawning (reproduction)?
semelparous
Many parasites typically have different hosts at different life stages. Snails typically avoid sunlit areas, but some snails infected with certain parasites become attracted to light and prefer sunlit areas. Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis given the life cycles of many parasites?
The parasite manipulates the behaviour of the snail so that it gets eaten more readily, which allows the parasite to complete its life cycle.
Uniform spacing patterns in plants, such as the creosote bush are most often associated with
competitive interactions among individuals in the population.
In what respect do humans differ from all other anthropoids?
bipedal posture
A scientist studies a population of feral cats in Toronto. He notes that r of this population is 1. What dos this mean, assuming he evaluates population size on a yearly basis?
The population of feral cats doubles in size each year.
As a population approaches its carrying capacity, how does its growth change?
The growth rate slows until N is close to K.
How might an ecologist test whether a species is occupying its realised or fundamental niche?
Remove a competitor species to see if the species expands its range, food sources, etc.
The principle of competitive exclusion states that
No two species can coexist for long if they are sharing the same limiting resource
Few carnivores can be supported in a food web because
c. A large amount of energy is lost at each trophic level.
The three basic variables that make up the life history of an organism are which of the following?
Age when reproduction begins, how often reproduction occurs, and how many offspring are produced per reproductive event.
You are surveying biodiversity on a new island chain. You have counted the number of bat species on one island already. The next island is smaller and farther from the mainland than the one you have just surveyed. According to the theory of island biogeography, the total number of its bat species should be _____ than on the current island because the rate of immigration to the new island should be _____ and the rate of extinction should be _____.
smaller, lower, higher
While traveling in Texas, you stumble across a snake withred, yellow, and black bands. You somehow remember that this could be a poisonous coral snake or a harmless milk snake, but you forget how to differentiate them because they both have similar colors and banding patterns. You wisely decide not to pick up the snake. What defense was successful in preventing you from grabbing the snake (other than an instinctive fear of
snakes)?
batesian mimicry
Which of the following best provides a chicken rancher using a free-roaming arrangement for her flock the data necessary to ensure maximum survival of her hens?
Distribution of chickens throughout the range.
Maximum sustainable yield is when as many individuals as possible are removed from the population without impairing the population's growth rate. At which point on the logistic growth curve is the maximum sustainable yield?
When the population size is at half the carrying capacity (K/2).
Biological reserves are an important tool in maintaining biodiversity because:
a reserve designed for a single species will also protect other species in the reserve
The "ghost of competition past" refers to the fact that
competition often leads to character displacement, which remains after direct competition is reduced.
Some birds follow moving swarms of army ants in the tropics. As the ants march along the forest floor hunting insects and small vertebrates, birds follow and pick off any insects or small vertebrates that fly or jump out of the way of the ants. This is an example of what kind of species interaction?
commensalism
Populations that exhibit logistic growth still exhibit exponential growth. This statement is:
true; populations exhibiting logistic growth go through a period of exponential growth before growth rates level off around zero.
Why can't a female lizard have both high fecundity and high survival?
The more energy the female devotes to offspring, the less that can be devoted to her survival.
Which of the following attributes of a species might render it especially susceptible to extinction?
It has a narrow dispersal range.
Factors that are usually biotic in nature and change in intensity as a function of population size are
Density-dependent factors
The relationship between species richness and recovery from natural disturbances can best be summarized as follows:
communities with more diversity recover more rapidly from natural disturbances
To measure the population density of squirrels occupying a particular park, 10 squirrels are captured, marked with non-toxic paint on their tail, & then released. The next day, another 10 squirrels are captured, including the recapture of 5 marked squirrels. What is the population estimate from these data?
20
When does the growth rate of a population equal zero?
when K-N/K is zero
Macroevolution refers to the evolutionary changes that
Create new species and groups of species.
The death rate of organisms in a population exhibiting a Type III survivorship curve is
lower after the organisms survive to the critical age of establishment.
Keystone species can maintain species diversity in a community if they
Prey on the community's dominant species.
According to the theory of island biogeography, which of the following islands should have the highest number of species at equilibrium?
A large island near the mainland.